Department of Defense Releases Operational Energy Strategy for Military Operations
For the first time, the Department of Defense (DOD) has published a strategy to transform the way it consumes energy in military operations. The strategy, called "Energy for the Warfighter: Operational Energy Strategy," was prepared by the newly established Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy, Plans and Programs and was released in May 2011. The mission of this new office is to promote the energy security of military operations through guidance and oversight of DOD activities and investments.
DOD defines operational energy as the resources used in military deployments across the full spectrum of missions, in direct support of military deployments, and in training in support of unit readiness for military deployments. This includes energy used by tactical power systems and generators and weapons platforms. Approximately 75 percent of the energy consumed by DOD in 2009 meets this definition. Fixed installations, mostly facilities and nontactical vehicles, account for the other 25 percent.
The operational energy strategy is intended to "guide the Department of Defense in how to better use energy resources to support the Department's strategic goals and the Nation's energy security goals" while lowering risks to warfighters and saving U.S. taxpayers money.
According to the strategy, the Armed Forces used more than 5 billion gallons of fuel in 2010 for military operations. To create a stronger force, the document sets out three guiding principles to reduce energy dependence and use:
- Reduce the demand for energy in military operations.
- Expand and secure the supply of energy for military operations.
- Build energy security into the future force.
To reduce energy consumption, the services will
document actual and projected energy consumption for current and planned military operations and accelerate the adoption of technological and management innovations to reduce demand and increase efficiency. The latter will include applying investments in rapid fielding and mid-life upgrades of platforms, systems, and equipment and long-term development of new capabilities. Priority will also be placed on innovations that can benefit current operations.
To expand and secure operational energy supplies, the services will diversify and develop new energy sources for expeditionary use and ensure that reliable energy supplies are secure for critical operational missions at fixed installations.
To build energy security into the future force, units will report lessons learned from current operations to help with future planning. The services are expected to apply those lessons to future planning, budgeting, and acquisition tasks.
Details on how DOD will execute this strategy will be published in an upcoming implementation plan.
Army Chief of Staff Addresses Upcoming Budget Constraints During AUSA Annual Meeting
Top among this year's topics at the Association of the United States Army annual meeting, held in Washington, D.C., from 10 to 12 October 2011, was upcoming potential budgetary constraints.
"I know that our Nation expects us [the Army] to be part of the solution to our debt," said General Raymond T. Odierno, the new Chief of Staff of the Army. "We should be and we will, but we also must be honest with the Nation about the risks such decisions bring with them."
General Odierno explained that the Army faces "a strategic environment that is increasingly complex and unpredictable." He said that threats like terrorism, failed and failing states, manmade disasters, narco-trafficking, and cyber threats "are compounded by the growing scarcity and competition for energy, food, and water."
"The challenge for our leaders, therefore, is to successfully chart a path to manage this uncertainty with fewer resources," said General Odierno. "I only see one way to do this: to set priorities, channel resources, and prevent conflicts before they become too costly."
General Odierno explained that the Army must achieve the right balance of end strength, modernization, and readiness. To do this, in the coming months Army leaders will be reviewing the service's "force mix" for the future, including heavy, medium, light, and airborne forces; capabilities shared between the Active and Reserve components; and military personnel, Department of the Army civilians, and contractors.
General Odierno stressed that as this review happens, it is important to the Army to continue to resource the Reserve component. "It would be foolish to let that progress unravel. We know that we must preserve the readiness of our National Guard and Army Reserves as a highly skilled operational force, and as we get smaller, the Reserve component will become integral to our ability to manage risk. We must ensure we have continued access and the ability to get the most out of this powerful partnership."
General Odierno said that during past periods of austerity Army leaders emphasized doing more with less. "As we move ahead under significant budget restrictions, we'll have to do less with less," he said. "All of us have to realize and understand that we will get smaller. That is fiscal reality, but it's the 'how' that's critical. If we go too fast, we risk the future current readiness of the force and lose the flexibility to react to the uncertain security environment."
Equipping and Maintaining the Force on Tight Budgets Highlighted During AUSA Meeting
During a session on responsible and agile modernization presented at the Association of the United States Army annual meeting, Army leaders discussed what steps the Army would take to continue modernization under budget constraints.
Lieutenant General William N. Lennox, the Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G–8, said that any cuts are likely to affect modernization. "Major costs for us are end strength, and because we're fighting wars, you can't draw down your end strength fast enough to offset those cuts," said General Lennox. "So, the brunt of those cuts will come in modernization and training accounts. It's just math."
To guide the Army in conducting continued modernization on a reduced budget, General Lennox laid out seven commandments for a budget-restrained environment:
- Set and enforce priorities.
- Revalidate and adjust requirements as needed.
- Make sure that affordable requirements are examined at the portfolio level.
- Use affordability as an independent variable.
- Eliminate redundancies.
- Leverage mature technologies.
- Match procurement quantities to the pace of modernization.
"We can't forget we have Soldiers in combat today," said General Lennox. "They require our attention. We have to equip them for the current fight, and we have to make sure that they have the best equipment in the world."
The Army Acquisition Corps has played a significant role in equipping the force in recent years. Lieutenant General William N. Phillips, the military deputy director of the corps, said, "We [the Army Acquisition Corps] have our challenges, but our Army and the industry that supports our Army [have] done remarkable work to field, to put capability in the hands of our Soldiers, so that they can be successful on the field of battle."
General Phillips used the mine-resistant ambushprotected (MRAP) vehicle, its follow-on (the MRAP all-terrain vehicle), and the M–4 carbine (which has received more than 60 improvements) as examples of acquisition success.
"The baseline requirement for the M–4 is about 600 mean rounds between failures. The experience that we are having downrange is about 3,600 rounds between failures, so it's 6 times the requirement, so the M–4 carbine is doing great work today."
According to General Phillips, one challenge the corps faces is team support and partnership. Program executive officers (PEOs) and product managers (PMs) learned some hard lessons when requirements were not carefully scrutinized upfront and they tried to deliver programs with only the resources provided.
"We can no longer afford to do that," said General Phillips. "We have to take advantage of every tax dollar that we get from the American public . . . that requires PEOs and PMs to work with the TCMs [Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) capability managers] in the TRADOC community and to make sure that we've got it right for our Soldiers."
Not only must the force be effectively equipped; it also must be maintained. Lieutenant General Mitchell H. Stevenson, then Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G–4, highlighted an area that is improving readiness and providing the Army cost savings at the same time—conditioned-based maintenance (CBM). "We're not where we want to be in our end state, but we have the basics of conditioned-based maintenance in two-thirds of our aircraft," said General Stevenson. "We have documented cases—I know four of them off the top of my head—where we have stopped an accident before it happened because we got information from the platform telling us that a component was about to go bad and we needed to take action."
CBM also is being used in weapon systems. According to General Stevenson, this saves time and keeps more vehicles operational.
Lieutenant General Dennis L. Via, the deputy commanding general of the Army Materiel Command, said that since the initiation of combat operations in Operation Enduring Freedom, stateside depots, arsenals, and national maintenance facilities have serviced over 2,500,000 pieces of equipment across the enterprise. That includes 7,300 tracked vehicles, 3,800 aircraft, 46,000 high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles, 39,000 night-vision devices, 192,000 single-channel ground and airborne radio systems, and 30,000 generators. He explained that these numbers are solely for maintenance done at arsenals and depots and do not include the number of missions depot personnel have performed at units' home stations or in the theater of operations.
Movement Tracking System Office Realigns Under PEO C3T
Program Executive Office (PEO) Command, Control and Communications–Tactical (C3T) assumed full management responsibility for the Army's Movement Tracking System (MTS) Product Office from PEO Enterprise Information Systems on 30 April 2011. Personnel, resources, and program management oversight for MTS are now provided by the Project Manager Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (PM FBCB2) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
MTS will transition to the Battle Command Product Line Task Force software that is being developed by PM FBCB2. This transition will provide efficiencies such as shared network management and operations elements.
The organizational change will not affect MTS fielding, and MTS will continue to meet logistics-specific requirements and have separate funding. MTS is expected to be fully deployed by the end of fiscal year 2013.
The MTS office also is working closely with PM FBCB2 and the logistics community to adopt a new software version, Joint Capabilities Release-Logistics (JCR–Log), which uses a software baseline used by Blue Force Tracker and has the same functionality as MTS version 5.16.2. The software is expected to be available for use in the field sometime in fiscal year 2012.
Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3–0, Unified Land Operations, published on 10 October 2011, is the first ADP published by the Army under the Doctrine 2015 initiative. The ADP replaces Field Manual 3–0, Operations, as the Army's capstone doctrine on operations. It defines unified land operations as "how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution." The ADP also explains that the concept is an "intellectual outgrowth" of operations doctrine and recent combat experiences.
New Strategy to Change Doctrine Structure by 2015
The Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) has launched "Doctrine 2015," a new concept that provides a road map for harnessing emerging technology to accelerate and modernize the doctrine development process. Doctrine 2015 changes the Army's doctrinal structure, adding 4 new types of publications: Army doctrine publications (ADPs), Army doctrine reference publications (ADRPs), Army techniques publications (ATPs), and applications.
There will only be 15 ADPs, each limited to about 10 pages. An ADRP will be published to complement each ADP and will include multimedia educational tools.
Field manuals (FMs) will continue to exist, but their number will be reduced from 350 to 50, and each will be limited to 200 pages. The FMs will lay out tactics and procedures and will describe how the Army executes the operations described in the ADPs.
Below the FM level, ATPs will provide nonprescriptive ways to perform missions, functions, or tasks. ATPs will be wiki-based and will be accessed, updated, and maintained on the Internet. By providing the document through this type of platform, more experts in the functional areas will be able to contribute to the knowledge provided in the documents and the information can be updated as changes happen.
Another doctrinal tool, called "applications," will include interactive media, podcasts, and mobile applications that can be downloaded to smartphones, electronic tablets, and other portable devices.
The first new publication, ADP 3–0, Unified Land Operations, was published on 10 October 2011. TRADOC plans to have all ADPs and their supporting ADRPs completed by the fall of 2012. The supporting FMs are slated to be finished by the summer of 2014.
CALL Issues Responsible Drawdown Study
The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), in partnership with the Army Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM), has released the first-ever handbook on drawdown operations written for all levels of Army sustainment. The special study, titled Responsible Drawdown and Reset, became available online in September 2011 and is designed to guide future leaders and planners in the tasks associated with the drawdown and reset of units.
CALL stresses that the information contained in the handbook "reflects the actions of units in the field and may not necessarily be approved U.S. Army policy or doctrine."
In the handbook's foreword, the CASCOM commander, Major General James L. Hodge, notes, "This document will continue to evolve as new lessons are derived; we encourage units to continue to support this effort by providing constant feedback from the field to the Center for Army Lessons Learned . . . , further closing the information gap between the generating and operational force."
This information not only is for use by U.S. Soldiers but also is available to coalition and allied partners. To access the digital version of the study, go to
ROWPU RODEO Challenges Water Purification Teams
The Army Forces Command G–4 and the Army Quartermaster School cohosted the annual Sergeant Major John C. Marigliano Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit Regulated On-site Demonstrated Efficiency Objective (ROWPU RODEO) at Fort Story, Virginia, from 21 to 27 August 2011.
The lanes-based evaluation of team skills is de-signed to train and educate water purification teams. Commanders also can use the event as a training management tool to assess the competence and readiness of water teams.
Six teams representing the Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve, and Marine Corps competed in this year's event. The 20th Quartermaster Company from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, took home the Sergeant Major John C. Marigliano Award for Excellence.
The next competition will be held from 20 to 24 August 2012 and will be conducted in two phases. The first phase will be held at Fort Story and the second at Fort Lee, Virginia.
(Photo by SGT Paul Kindzierski, 262d Quartermaster Battalion)
Base Closure and Realignment 2005 Finishes on Time
The Army has completed 440 projects as part of the 2005 Department of Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission (BRAC) program—all before the 15 September 2011 BRAC deadline.
These projects closed 12 Active component installations, 1 Reserve installation, and 387 National Guard and Army Reserve centers. They also reduced the Army's occupancy of 8 leased facilities and returned 70,363 acres of property and facilities to local communities for redevelopment.
The Army Materiel Command, in addition to moving its headquarters to Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, closed ammunition plants and chemical demilitarization sites, realigned depot maintenance functions, and reconstituted new laboratories and administrative spaces, consolidating into four main centers at Huntsville, Alabama; Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois; Warren, Michigan; and Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
BRAC 2005 was the Army's largest organizational transformation since World War II.
Army War College Sponsors Strategic Landpower Essay Contest
The Army War College and the Army War College Foundation are sponsoring the 2012 Strategic Landpower Essay Contest. The competition is designed to advance professional knowledge of the strategic role of landpower in joint and multinational operations.
This year's topics of interest for the contest include the future of landpower, the strategic role of landpower, and the Army's role in national security.
Essays must be original and must not be previously published or exceed 5,000 words. All entries must be postmarked by 17 February 2012 in order to be accepted. Everyone except those involved in the judging is eligible to enter and win.
For more information or for a copy of the essay contest rules, contact Dr. Michael R. Matheny at the college's Department of Military Strategy, Planning and Operations by telephone at (717) 245–3459 or DSN 242–3459 or by email at email@example.com.
On page 26 of the November–December issue of Army Sustainment, the opening blurb of "Human Resources Operations Branch: Doctrine Versus Reality," by Major David L. Godfrey, Jr., and Warrant Officer 1 LaMika D. Brown, incorrectly stated that the 1st Sustainment Brigade was deployed to Iraq. The brigade was deployed to Kuwait.