Transformation of the first two brigades at Fort Lewis, Washington, to initial brigade combat teams (IBCT's) is underway.

"This action is a milestone on the road to transforming the entire Army into a force that is strategically responsive and dominant at every point on the spectrum of operations," said General Eric K. Shinseki, Chief of Staff of the Army. "The transformation of these two brigades at Fort Lewis, using current off-the-shelf technology, will give us an interim capability as we move toward our long-term goal of the Objective Force."

The new interim design will enable the Army to deploy brigades anywhere in the world in 96 hours and in a configuration that is ready to fight upon arrival. The first IBCT to transform to the new design, the 3d Brigade, 2d Infantry Division, is scheduled to achieve initial operating capability (IOC) by December 2001. IOC is the point at which the Army certifies that the unit is capable of accomplishing brigade-level operations. The second IBCT, the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Light), will achieve IOC by December 2002. Soldiers and units at Fort Lewis are training to develop the tactics, techniques, and procedures for the new IBCT's. Currently, soldiers are training with light armored vehicles on loan from Canada pending selection and fielding of the interim armored vehicle in the fourth quarter of this fiscal year.

The first two IBCT's will feature organizations significantly different from the Army's current brigades. Each will include three infantry battalions; an artillery battalion; a reconnaissance, surveillance, targeting, and acquisition battalion (known as the RiSTA squadron), which will increase the intelligence-gathering capability of the brigade significantly; and organic engineer, military intelligence, and signal companies.

The companies of the infantry battalions will be combined arms teams consisting primarily of medium armored gun systems, infantry, and mortars. Previously, Army companies and battalions were organized as pure tank or infantry units, then task-organized based on mission requirements.

Establishing the IBCT's is the first phase of the Army's three-phase strategy for transforming the current force. The IBCT's will provide an initial capability currently not available in the force and will serve to identify changes that are needed in doctrine, organization, equipment, training, and leader development in the second phase, the interim force.

The interim force will consist of the two IBCT's at Fort Lewis and other IBCT's yet to be named. The interim force will be fielded largely with off-the-shelf equipment and technology insertions. It will provide immediate deployability and breakthrough maneuver capabilities to bridge the gap between the Army's existing heavy and light forces until technology developments make fielding of the objective force possible.

The final phase of the transformation, the objective force, will begin with fielding of future combat systems currently being studied by the Army.


To ensure that commanders, staffs, and soldiers are able to use contractor personnel effectively on the future battlefield, the Army Training and Doctrine Command has published Field Manual (FM) 100-21, Contractors on the Battlefield, dated 26 March 2000. The new FM addresses the use of contractors as an added resource for commanders to consider when planning support for an operation. The manual is intended for commanders and their staffs at all echelons and for program managers and others involved in planning for, managing, and using contractors in a theater of operations. It also will help Army contracting professionals and contractors to understand how contractors will be managed and supported by the military forces they assist. The Army Combined Arms Support Command at Fort Lee, Virginia, was the lead agency in developing the new FM. (See related story "Institutionalizing Contractor Support on the Battlefield.")


The Army Materiel Command (AMC), headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, has realigned its field structure provisionally to support warfighters better. As part of the 31 March realignment, the Industrial Operations Command and its subordinate, the Army War Reserve Support Command, both at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, assumed new names and responsibilities. The Industrial Operations Command (IOC) was renamed the Operations Support Command (OSC) and will stand up permanently on 1 October.

The Army Field Support Command (FSC) will build on the mission of the former Army War Reserve Support Command. With its stand-up, FSC gained operational control of the Army's logistics support elements, which provide field sustainment support during times of crisis.

FSC will have a formal presence at sites in Europe, Southwest Asia, and Northeast Asia, as well as at sites within the continental United States, and provide Army field commanders with a single point of entry for all AMC activities. As a result, AMC Forward-Europe, AMC Forward-Far East, AMC Forward-Southwest Asia, and AMC-Continental United States will report to FSC. Those portions of the Logistics Support Activity in Huntsville, Alabama, that manage the forward elements and the logistics assistance offices also have become a part of FSC.

At the same time, management of the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) has been moved to Headquarters, FSC. Additional AMC realignments are expected over the next 2 years.


In February, Fort Knox, Kentucky, became the first installation in the Army to average under 5 days in order ship time (OST). During that month, the installation averaged a 4.9-day wait on delivering all tank and vehicle repair parts to its customer units.

The Army's velocity management (VM) program, established in 1995, has revolutionized military logistics by using modern management programs to eliminate or simplify inefficient operations, saving time and money and improving quality. Before Fort Knox began participating in the VM program in 1997, the average wait time for units to receive supplies was 24.4 days.

"It was just a slow, slow process of supplies being received and ordered, especially in supply and maintenance. The [VM] program was designed to relook how we do business," said program coordinator Bobby Loyall. "Before we started this up, we always had mechanics sitting out there waiting on parts. And it would take that much longer to get the vehicles back in serv-ice. Now parts are usually waiting on the mechanics."

Loyall said that, with the 74 percent decrease in wait time, unit operational readiness has increased. "[VM] made people look at business and how they operate things on a whole," he said. "Things that you do every day, that you didn't think were bad business practices, you find that you can do better."

Improvements made under the VM program include consolidating Fort Knox's five supply warehouses into a single unit, thereby reducing required warehouse space by 101,319 square feet and saving an estimated $235,000; having supplies delivered directly to Fort Knox in dedicated trucks from the supply depot instead of using trucks that had to make multiple supply stops along the way; and using a computerized ordering system to order directly from the Army's supply depots.


The Department of Defense (DOD) has established the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) under the direction and authority of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

DCMA was formerly the Defense Contract Management Command (DCMC), a major subordinate command of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). All of the employees and resources of the former DCMC, including 12,539 full-time positions, will be transferred from DLA to DCMA. With the creation of DCMA, DLA's other major subordinate command, the Defense Logistics Support Command, will be abolished and its components, such as the Defense Distribution Center, will report directly to DLA headquarters.

DCMA supervises and manages contracts with the suppliers who deliver goods and services to the military each year. The new agency also is charged with streamlining and standardizing the contracting process.


The Department of Defense (DOD) has selected seven projects for fiscal year (FY) 2000 out-of-cycle funding under the Foreign Comparative Testing (FCT) Program. Under the program, which is administered by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, the selected items will be considered for procurement to meet identified U.S. defense requirements.

The FCT Program supports the U.S. warfighter by identifying nondevelopmental items of allied and other friendly nations that will satisfy U.S. defense requirements quickly and economically. The FCT process depends on the availability of a world-class foreign item in which a U.S. user is interested and has a valid requirement for and that has good procurement potential. The goal is to reduce the acquisition cycle time and the expense of research, development, test, and evaluation while enhancing standardization and interoperability and improving international cooperation.

The armed services and U.S. Special Operations Command nominate FCT projects to the Office of the Secretary of Defense annually. Each proposed project is screened to ensure that the item is non-developmental and addresses a valid requirement, that a thorough market investigation has been conducted to identify all potential contenders, and that the sponsoring organization has developed a viable strategy to purchase the foreign item if it tests successfully and offers best value.

Of the seven projects selected for FY 2000 out-of-cycle FCT funding, two are sponsored by the Army, two by the Navy and Marine Corps, and two by the Air Force. The Navy and the Air Force sponsor one project jointly.


The 39th annual Army Operations Research Symposium (AORS) will be held 10 through 12 October at the Army Logistics Management College, Fort Lee, Virginia. Over 200 Government, academic, and industrial leaders are expected to attend.

The Army Test and Evaluation Command is sponsoring this year's event. The theme is "Shaping the Transformation Force." The Army Combined Arms Support Command and the Army Logistics Management College will co-host the symposium.

The Army Test and Evaluation Command is responsible for the overall planning and conduct of AORS. General conference information can be obtained by visiting the AORS website,, or by calling (703) 681-9887 or -9835 (DSN prefix: 761).


Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois, has upgraded its modeling capabilities to include production of scaled down or actual-size solid plastic models of items to be manufactured. The machine that produces the models is called a "3D printer," and it automatically shapes hot plastic into models detailed to a resolution of .013 inch. Process planners, engineers, designers, and others involved in manufacturing everything from spare parts to weapon systems can study the models to find ways to produce items faster, better, and cheaper. High-quality models make rapid prototyping possible by putting what is conceived in the mind into solid form.

Modeling information can be fed into the 3D printer from any workstation on Rock Island's computer-aided design network. Information is transformed into solid reality with a few clicks of a mouse. Simple models can be produced in an hour or less, while the most detailed models can take up to 40 hours. Because the 3D printer can operate unattended, complicated jobs can be run overnight or over a weekend.

Plastic models of already-manufactured items can be made by using a separate digitizer arm available at the arsenal. As the tip of the digitizer arm moves over the surface of the item, it plots all of the points that it crosses and converts the data into a computer-aided design drawing. This drawing then is used to make a solid model.

For more information on Rock Island Arsenal's modeling capabilities, visit their website at

Rock Island Arsenal's 3D printer produces models that are detailed to a resolution of .013 inch. Rock Island Arsenal's 3D printer produces models that are detailed to a resolution of .013 inch.

Each year, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (DCSLOG), Department of the Army, recognizes individuals and teams that have excelled in the different areas of integrated logistics support (ILS). Each Government civilian winner is awarded a $1,000 prize. Individual winners and a representative of each of the winning teams also receive a plaque from the DCSLOG.

The winners of the 1999 ILS achievement awards for excellence in the various areas are—

Logistics Support Improvement for Materiel/ Information Systems. Team: Battlefield Mobility/ Target Acquisition Life Cycle Contractor Support Integrated Product Team at the Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command in Orlando, Florida, for their application of acquisition reform principles to prepare a request for proposal, conduct proposal evaluations, and award the life cycle contractor support contract within the approved acquisition program baseline schedule without industry protests.

Individual: Michael Linkletter of the Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, for his efforts to develop and implement improvements to the ILS management and maintenance concept of the Doppler Navigation System that resulted in an initial savings to CECOM of $850,000 and a cost avoidance of $3 million annually.

ILS Execution/Process Improvement. Team: Knowledge Asset Management Network Team in the office of the Project Manager, Utility Helicopters, for their efforts to apply ILS and weapon systems management techniques to the management of knowledge and information management technology.

Individual (two awards): Gary McPherson of the Army Materiel Command Logistics Support Activity at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, for his development of a milestone schedule capability for the Logistics Planning and Requirements System; and Charles J. Kopack, Sr., of the Army Medical Materiel Agency at Fort Detrick, Maryland, for his work in the design and development of the Materiel Acquisition Review Process, which is a means of prioritizing products, projects, and systems for funding.

ILS Management. Team: Future Scout Cavalry System/Tactical Reconnaissance Armored Combat Equipment Requirement Team, composed of personnel from the Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command Army Armor Center, Fort Knox, Kentucky; the TRADOC Combat Development Engineering Center, Fort Knox, Kentucky; and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Support Planning (Land), Headquarters Quartermaster General, Bristol, United Kingdom, for their innovative work in developing user needs and program strategies for achieving those needs and assisting their separate project offices in activities leading to the award of advanced technology demonstration contracts to two international consortia.

Individual: Helen Clover Wakefield of the Sentinel Program Office at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, for her direction and leadership in fielding Sentinel radars to four Army divisions under budget and on time.


The Army is accepting proposals for the fiscal year (FY) 2002 Soldier Enhancement Program (SEP). The SEP endeavors to enhance the survivability, lethality, mobility, command and control, and sustainability of soldiers in combat situations by speeding the process of adding commercial, off-the-shelf items to the Army inventory.

The SEP is not an incentive award program. No monetary awards are given for proposals that are adopted for use and result in a cost saving to the Government. Of the 116 new proposals submitted for the FY 2000 program, 8 were accepted. They are: An integrated laser white-light pointer that provides soldiers, in a single device, a night-invisible laser, a day-visible laser, and a white light that can be used in military operations on urbanized terrain; a biocular eyepiece for the AN/TVS-5 night-vision sight that allows soldiers to retain their sight picture throughout the firing sequence, thereby improving weapon accuracy; a pattern generator that produces a variety of laser-pointer patterns for signaling, fire control, and identification purposes; a close-combat mission-rehearsal capability that permits soldiers to rehearse near-transparent, realistic close combat; an M84 reloadable fuse that can be removed and replaced, which permits reuse of the M84 stun grenade; a double hearing protection and communication device that protects soldiers' hearing from noise and blast pressure while allowing them to hear normal voices; a neck protector that shields the back of the neck during civil disturbance or peacekeeping operations; and a law enforcement patrol bag in which special reaction team members can carry, store, and protect mission-related equipment.

For information on how to submit a proposal, send an e-mail to, or call (706) 545-6047 or DSN 835-6047. The deadline for submissions is 15 August 2000.


President Clinton's 1 May decision to stop intentional degradation (or selective availability [SA]) of global positioning system (GPS) signals available to the public will not impinge on continuing efforts to upgrade military application of GPS. Threat assessments made in advance of the decision concluded that setting SA to zero would have minimal impact on national security. It remains possible to deny GPS signals selectively on a regional basis if national security is threatened.

The President's decision was based on a recommendation by the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretaries of State, Commerce, and Transportation, the Director of Central Intelligence, and other Executive Branch departments and agencies, who believed that worldwide transportation safety, scientific, and commercial interests could best be served by discontinuing SA. Originally developed by the Department of Defense, GPS is a dual-use, satellite-based system that provides accurate location and timing data to military and civilian users worldwide. With the lifting of SA, civilian users of GPS now can pinpoint locations up to 10 times more accurately than before.

In addition to its use by the military, GPS benefits users around the world in many different applications, including air, road, marine, and rail navigation, telecommunications, emergency response, oil exploration, and mining. Increased GPS accuracy will allow new applications to emerge and continue to enhance the lives of people around the world.


A CH-47 Chinook helicopter and the C-5A Galaxy sit on the tarmac before loading. There is little room to spare as the Chinook is rolled into the C-5A.
CCAD workers roll a helicopter pylon into the aircraft. In the top left photo, a CH-47 Chinook helicopter and the C-5A Galaxy sit on the tarmac before loading. Above, there is little room to spare as the Chinook is rolled into the C-5A. At left, CCAD workers roll a helicopter pylon into the aircraft.

Two CH-47 Chinooks, the Army's largest helicopters, were squeezed into the Air Force's largest aircraft, the C-5A Galaxy transport, for a flight to Korea last March. Helicopters in Korea were grounded several months earlier by a safety of flight message on flaws in helicopter transmissions. In the meantime, units in Korea needed two Chinooks for their missions.

Two helicopters, which had been reworked at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) and test flown and accepted by both CCAD- and Korea-based pilots, were scheduled to make the flight to Korea aboard a C-5A. It took about a week to prepare the Chinooks for the trans-Pacific flight. "We disassembled the back pylons, removed the transmissions, blades, and other parts," said Richard Caballero, quality assurance representative at CCAD. "The transmissions and blades were put inside the aircraft and the pylons were wheeled into the C5A on dollies. As you can see by the photos, it was a tight fit . . . This is the first time that CCAD has airlifted Chinooks, packed like this, to the customer."


The Army has named the winners of the 18th Annual Army Awards for Maintenance Excellence (AAME) for fiscal year 1999. A total of 54 units competed. The executive agent for AAME is the Army Ordnance Center and School at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

"The most rewarding thing to see generated as a result of the . . . [awards] is the interest and involvement of the entire chain of command," said Jerry Macon, program manager. "Just the effort of taking a close look at your maintenance programs and procedures as you prepare for the competition pays dividends for some time. This includes improved readiness, waste reduction, and improved efficiency in daily operations." Winners of this year's competition are-

Active Army Modification Table of Organization and Equipment (MTOE) Units

Light. A Company, 202d Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Gordon, Georgia.

Intermediate. 268th Signal Company, Mannheim, Germany.

Heavy. 230th Military Police Company, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Active Army Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) Units

Light. Ground Mobility Division, 1st Battalion, 81st Armor, Fort Knox, Kentucky.

Intermediate. 58th Transportation Battalion, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.

Heavy. 751st Military Intelligence Battalion, Camp Humphries, Korea.

Army National Guard MTOE Units

Light. 540th Quartermaster Battalion, Lenoir, North Carolina.

Intermediate. Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 113th Field Artillery Brigade, Greensboro, North Carolina.

Heavy. 842d Engineer Company, Spearfish, South Dakota.

Army Reserve MTOE Units

Light. Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 349th Support Battalion, Ames, Iowa.

Intermediate. 737th Transportation Company, Yakima, Washington.

Heavy. 1007th Maintenance Company, Hagerstown, Maryland.