Army Forces Command Presents New ARFORGEN
at AUSA Sustainment Symposium
Brigadier General John R. O’Connor, the Deputy
Chief of Staff, G–4, for the Army Forces Command
(FORSCOM), laid out changes to the Army Force
Generation (ARFORGEN) processes during the Army
Sustainment Symposium and Exposition hosted by the
Association of the United States Army (AUSA) from 8 to
10 May 2012 in Richmond, Virginia.
The FORSCOM G–4 said that while the current ARFORGEN
process has served well over the past 7 years, it
is time for a change.
“There will be decreasing depth requirements changing
force structures,” said General O’Connor. “We all
know there’s a significant fiscal constraint [im]posed on
our Army, so we need to have the right force ready at the
right level and of course at the right time.”
The Army Chief of Staff approved a new ARFORGEN
model on 28 April. This model includes three force pools:
the mission force pool, the rotational force pool, and the
operational sustainment pool.
"The old model attempted to manage the entire force in
one force pool, and the new model again has three,” said
General O’Connor, noting the return to a tiered readiness
The mission force pool distributes forces to a highdemand
requirement and to theater-assigned forces that
do not have sufficient force structure to be progressive. Units in this pool, including those in Korea and other
forward-deployed locations and any “low density unit
that must be at a high state of readiness at all times,” will be required to attain progressive readiness and stay
The rotational force pool includes units in and ready to
enter Operation Enduring Freedom, Kosovo Force, and
other rotational missions.
The operational sustainment pool is made up of National
Guard divisions, the 21st Armored Division, the
11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, and other units that are
required to meet operational requirements and to maintain
a level of readiness in a “modified progressive” status. General O’Connor noted that these units can be pulled up
into the available pool at any time but will be maintained
at a lower state of operational readiness.
“You’re starting to hear the word ‘rotational Army
force,’” said General O’Connor. “We’re going to align
brigades to reach into CENTCOM [the U.S. Central
Command] to Southeast Asia to the Pacific, and then it
will be the XVIII Airborne Corps expeditionary forces. So you’re going to be aligned, and that’s how you’re going
to set your conditions for future training.”
While the old ARFORGEN model was based on a supply
base by default (generating a set amount of capability
and capacity every year unless it is required to produce
more), the new model is demand based. It activates only
the forces needed to meet operational requirements.
Army Techniques Publication (ATP) 3–04.94,
Army Techniques Publication for Forward Arming
and Refueling Points, published 26 January
2012, describes forward arming and refueling
point (FARP) operations of aviation units. The
ATP provides a comprehensive overview of the
purpose, organization, and operation of FARPs
and includes planning considerations for the set up
and transportation of the class III (petroleum, oils,
and lubricants) and class V (ammunition) needed
for these operations. More detailed information on
FARP operations is available in Field Manual (FM)
10–67–1, Concepts and Equipment of Petroleum
Operations, and FM 4–30.1, Ammunition.
FM 1–04, Legal Support to the Army, was published
26 January 2012. The field manual provides
authoritative doctrine and practical guidance for
commanders, judge advocates, legal administrators,
and paralegal Soldiers across the spectrum of
conflict. The field manual also outlines the modular
organizational structure of the Judge Advocate
General Corps and discusses the delivery of legal
support to a modular force.
Operational Energy Panel Outlines Initiatives
for Greater Flexibility on the Battlefield
The Army Sustainment Symposium panel on operational
energy laid out the challenges that operational energy
creates and the many options operational energy initiatives
provide commanders in the warfight.
Colonel Paul E. Roege, chief of the Army’s new Operational
Energy Office under the Deputy Chief of Staff,
G–4, Department of the Army, chaired the panel and
noted that operational energy is a fundamental operational
capability and makes the force more agile, lethal,
expeditionary, versatile, and sustainable when used in the
The Army faces three challenges concerning operational
energy: situational awareness and the ability to manage
the energy usage, the need for a smaller footprint, and the
need for flexibility.
“That sounds like [we’re] saying that we need to use
less, but the fact is, since we don’t have the management
capability, we’re really wasting a lot of energy and
not getting some of the synergies that we could,” said Colonel Roege. The operational energy chief noted that in
the future Army leaders will use information, knowledge,
and analysis to be more aware of how energy is used.
He said that solar panels and other technologies that
reduce the number of convoys to forward operating bases
(FOBs) save energy, and more importantly, they offer an
alternative to commanders so that they are not relying on
just one course of action.
Colonel Phillip VonHoltz, commander of the Army
Petroleum Center, noted that in Afghanistan the Army is
using an average of 22 gallons of fuel per day per Soldier—20 more gallons that the average
Soldiers used during World War II. The
Army also paid about a billion dollars
more for fuel in fiscal year (FY) 2011
than in FY 2010, and it is on track to
pay the FY 2011 amount again in FY
2012. Forty percent of the fuel dispensed
in Afghanistan in FY 2011 was
used in generators.
An initial capabilities document for
the Army Operational Energy Office
was approved by the Department of
Defense J–4 on 18 April. This document
outlines the gaps that exist and the
changes that will be made to overcome
operational energy challenges.
“We’re going to see that [a network
concept] in terms of smart grids. We’re
going to see that in terms of management
systems. That’s going to be sort
of pervasive in our energy management
approach,” said Colonel Roege. “Today
on the battlefield, our commanders
don’t have that [situational awareness]
in terms of operational energy, so we’ve
got to give them that ability to just see
where do I stand, when do I need to
refuel, what kind of alternatives do I
have available and just blend that into
their operational activities, planning,
Fielding of new technologies, including
solar panels, water reuse systems,
and new advanced medium-size mobile
power source generators (which save
a fifth of a gallon of fuel per hour of
use and 4,800 gallons over the life of a
10-kilowatt generator), to FOBs have
been the focus of initial operational
energy initiatives. But changes to major
systems, including the M1 Abrams tank
and helicopters, are also coming.
“We’ve got an improved turbine
engine program that we are going to
build into our Black Hawks and Apache
aircraft that’s going to save 20 percent on fuel consumption,” said Colonel Roege. He noted that the system
change will also provide greater coverage of more terrain
and better system performance.
The Bradley fighting vehicle also will receive drive
train improvements to reduce fuel consumption and make
it more maneuverable.
Anyone interested in more information on Army Operational
Energy projects can visit the Army Capabilities
Integration Center webpage on operational energy located
Deployment Training to Save Energy
As part of their mission readiness exercise at the Joint
Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany, 173d
Airborne Brigade Combat Team Soldiers trained on solarpowered
technologies for their upcoming deployment. The
Soldiers learned how to operate and maintain multiple hybridpower
management systems as part of the Energy to the Edge
(E2E) Program. The E2E Program supports small tactical units
operating in remote locations with suites of energy gathering,
management, and distribution systems. In this photo, Rapid
Equipping Force trainers educate Soldiers on the SolarStik,
which will provide remote outposts with a reliable solar energy
source. (Photo by Ali Sanders, Rapid Equipping Force)
Logistics Leaders Outline Force Design Changes
During the Army Sustainment Symposium, held in
Richmond, Virginia, this May, key Army sustainment
leaders laid out how Army units will change to become
the Army of 2020.
Brigadier General John R. O’Connor, the Deputy
Chief of Staff, G–4, for the Army Forces Command
(FORSCOM), said that no later than fiscal year (FY)
2015, force structure reductions and equipment retrograde
are expected to facilitate increased readiness and the
ability to conduct home-station training. In the years that
follow, FORSCOM’s predominant readiness focus will be
contingency mission sets.
“No later than FY 16, sufficient joint, intergovernmental,
multinational, and interagency capabilities will be
available to corps and divisions,” said General O’Connor. “Not later than [FY] 17, end strength decreases for the
Active component will be at 490,000, Army National
Guard 450,000, and USAR [the Army Reserve] at
To support Army structure changes, the “Army 2020” effort shapes the force to meet the operational environment
with this smaller end strength. Major General James
L. Hodge, the commanding general of the Army Combined
Arms Support Command, explained that under this design all brigade combat teams (BCTs) will include a
third maneuver battalion. According to General Hodge,
maneuver commanders also want a brigade engineer battalion
(BEB) in each Stryker, infantry, and heavy BCT.“So we’re looking at converting special troops battalions
into BEBs for those formations,” said General Hodge.
He noted that reductions in engineer vertical and
horizontal capabilities inside of the BCT are being considered.
So are eliminating military police and combat
observation/lasing teams from the BCTs and migrating
those capabilities to echelons above brigade.
Within the sustainment community, moving capabilities
out of the brigade support battalion formations is being
considered for water production, infantry troop transport,
bulk fuel, and some distribution provided by heavy
expanded-mobility tactical trucks.
“We’ll migrate that out of the BCT in order to help
keep the force size where we want it,” said General
Hodge. “And we’ll move those capabilities to echelons
In regard to fuel distribution, General Hodge noted that
there is concern that so much echelons-above-brigade
capability resides in the Reserve component, including
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) planning at the
expeditionary sustainment command and theater sustainment
“Some of the specific gaps associated with it are early-entry tactical receipt distribution, mission command,
POL liaison, quality assurance and quality supervision,
the engineer oversight that you need when you put in the
IPDS (the inland petroleum distribution system), and of
course, some technical expertise at all echelons,” said
This is why a force design update (FDU) is currently
underway for POL. Also undergoing review is the military
occupational specialty 92Y (unit supply specialist)
force design, which is expected to improve property accountability
as units return to the unit maintained equipment
“We’ve identified through our processes that we have a
significant gap in terms of something as simple as the basic
number of Soldiers who are in company-level supply
rooms,” said General Hodge. “This FDU gets at a phased
approach of getting the right numbers of our Soldiers to
work in the supply rooms to handle the tremendously significant
number of transactions that they have to handle.”
New Commander’s Emergency Response Program Course Launched
by the Army Financial Management School
A new and extensive distance learning course has been developed to support the Commander’s Emergency
Response Program (CERP). Authorized by Congress, CERP has allowed deployed military commanders to
determine how U.S. tax dollars will be used to meet urgent humanitarian relief and reconstruction requirements
for local populations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
During development, the new CERP course was under the management of the Army Financial Management
School and the Training Development Directorate of the Army Soldier Support Institute. Although the initial
CERP courseware launched in 2009 was only a 16-hour distributed learning course, the new course contains
62.5 hours of interactive multimedia instruction.
The CERP course consists of six tracks:
- Track 1, CERP Foundation.
- Track 2, CERP for Commanders.
- Track 3, CERP for Resource Managers.
- Track 4, CERP for Project Managers.
- Track 5, CERP for Purchase Officers.
- Track 6, Paying Agent Operations.
Once the first track is completed, students can enroll in any of the follow-on tracks, and they can be taken in
any order. Having the option to opt-out of tracks will alleviate redundant training for students who have previous
training and experience in CERP.
CERP training is designed for Active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve, and sister services supporting
CERP in predeployment training environments and theater missions. The new CERP training can be
accessed through the Army Learning Management System.
The Training Development Directorate’s point of contact for CERP training is A.D. Denson, who is available
by telephone at (803) 751–8295 and by email at email@example.com.
Army Acquisition Corps Continues to Grow
Despite the overall downsizing trend the Army will see
in coming years, the Army Acquisition Corps is expected
to double its workforce by the end of fiscal year 2013.
The corps continues to seek qualified officers and
noncommissioned officers (NCOs) to be part of its ranks.
Officers should be in their 6th or 7th year of service and
be a captain who is branch qualified in another specialty
in order to transfer to functional area 51. On the NCO
side, the Acquisition Corps is seeking sergeants and staff
sergeants with less than 10 years of service who are in
balanced or overstrength military occupational specialties
(MOSs) to transfer to MOS 51C (acquisition NCO).
Interested Soldiers should send a reclassification packet
through their appropriate human resources channels. The
Army Acquisition Support Center at Huntsville, Alabama,
holds quarterly boards to select the best-qualified Soldiers.
Troop Drawdown Turns Sustainment Leaders’ Focus
to Property Accountability
As units prepare to leave Afghanistan and budgetary
constraints tighten, sustainment leaders are placing more
emphasis on property accountability. During the Army
Sustainment Symposium, Lieutenant General Raymond
V. Mason, the Deputy Chief of Staff, G–4, Department
of the Army, told attendees that a task force led by Major
General Timothy P. McHale has returned a report on the state of the Army’s property accountability.
“We compared it to the report done right after the Vietnam
War,” said the G–4. “Many of the same observations
of property accountability problems that were found in
1970 were found in 2012.”
According to General Mason, between 50,000 and
60,000 pieces of rolling stock are currently in Afghanistan.
“In fact, we’re drawing it down, but as we’re beginning
to clean up these forward operating bases, we
find more and more stuff, said the G–4. “Lots and lots of
equipment is starting to bubble to the top, and that’s ok.
We want to do that. We want to bring that to record and
bring it back and get it to our units.”
One area the G–4 is focusing on to improve property
accountability is a move back to the unit maintained
equipment program (UME). General Mason said that
while letting the Army Materiel Command and contractors
manage equipment made sense in the short term, it
came with unintended consequences, including a lack of
individual responsibility for equipment.
One positive that has resulted from the Army’s years at
war is the state of readiness of its vehicle fleet. General
Mason noted that before 9/11 the Army’s vehicle fleet
was only at 70 percent capacity. It is now at 90 percent at
the macrolevel. “The readiness of our fleets [is] actually
magnificent,” said General Mason. “Our challenge of
course is how to maintain it.”
According to Brigadier General John R. O’Connor, the
Deputy Chief of Staff, G–4, for the Army Forces Command,
93 percent of deployed units will be executing
UME by the end of fiscal year (FY) 2012. By FY 2013,
100 percent of units will be inducted into the program.
“[The] Army Sustainment Command will continue to
offer contract maintenance and accountability augmentation
to those forces as required,” said General O’Connor. “Under the UME contract, costs have been reduced $600
million in FY 10 to [a] now projected $91 million in FY
13, so you can see the steep decline in having a contract
capability where we’re going to put it back into the hands
of the Soldiers to take care of this equipment.”
The command discipline programs for supply, maintenance,
deployment, and contracting will play major roles
in taking care of equipment too.
“It’s about reinvigorating systems that existed,” said
General Mason. “We want to really leverage the skill sets
that we’ve learned over the last 10 years . . . but then we
need to add some of the things that we’ve let atrophy.”
Last Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected Vehicle Out of Iraq Moves to Fort Hood
The last mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle driven out of Iraq was loaded onto the Ocean Crescent
on 24 March at the sea port of debarkation in Kuwait. The vehicle was en route to Fort Hood, Texas, to be
put on display at the 1st Calvary Division Museum.
In-Transit Visibility Equipment Recovered From Iraq
Along with the departure of troops and equipment
from Iraq came the removal of fixed radio-frequency intransit
visibility readers throughout the country. Product
Manager, Joint Automatic Identification Technology has
recovered and redistributed the readers to meet requirements
in Afghanistan and other locations and reassigned
the supporting field service engineers who were stationed
At the peak of operations, 118 fixed reader sites
throughout Iraq were reading and reporting information
on up to 124,000 radio-frequency identification tags a
New MC4 Training Tool Simulates Medical System
Used During Deployment
Medical Communications for Combat Casualty Care
(MC4) has developed a simulation tool called the Simulation
Medical Data Server (SMDS) that provides simulated
data to the mission command application used by
the medical community during deployments, the Medical
Situational Awareness in the Theater (MSAT) portal.
MSAT is the joint automated solution that serves as the
joint medical community’s mission command system.
SMDS has the capability to provide operations and
clinical operations sections with real-time information
about casualties during simulation exercises. It has also
been successfully integrated and synchronized with the
casualty information resident within current battlefield
MC4 partnered with the Logistics Exercise and Simulation
Directorate, the material developer for the Joint Deployment
Logistics Module (JDLM), to integrate SMDS
into JDLM. This integration has brought medical personnel
deeper into training scenarios by making it possible
for clinicians to track patient flow from role 1 to role 3
units during training. The integration also lets medical
leaders determine if a nuclear-enhanced conventional
weapon has been employed or if a chemical, biological,
radiological event has taken place. SMDS also allows
senior medical staff officers and medical mission command
units to participate in large joint simulation training
exercises using their go-to-war system.
In the May–June 2012 issue of
Army Sustainment, the caption for the cover included an incorrect
date. The Ordnance Corps Bicentennial was
14 May 2012, not 24 May 2012 as stated in the
Also, the captions of the photos on pages 53 and
54 are reversed. The photo on page 53 shows an
M1 Abrams tank being loaded onto a flatbed trailer.
The photo on page 54 shows a piece of engineer
equipment being loaded onto a trailer.