The President’s budget proposals forwarded
to Congress in February call for significant boosts in spending
for two key Army Transformation efforts: the Modular Force
and the Future Combat Systems (FCS).
The Army’s budget request for fiscal year 2006 seeks
to increase spending on the FCS program by $200 million, to
a total of $3.405 billion. The higher spending reflects the
Army’s decision last July to restructure the program
to introduce, or “spiral,” individual FCS capabilities
to the field in 2-year increments as they mature, while continuing
to develop the overall “system of systems.”
The supplemental budget for fiscal year 2005 asks for $5 billion
for the Army’s transition to the Modular Force. Under
this program, the Army is creating new, more flexible, more
self-sufficient brigades. These brigades will be the Army’s
basic combat units, shifting the Army from a division- to a
brigade-centric organization. The requested funds will support
the standup of three new brigades this year as part of the
Army’s plan to add 10 brigades to the existing 33 in
the Active Army.
The fiscal year 2006 budget seeks to acquire 240 Stryker vehicles
for $878 million to equip the sixth Stryker brigade combat
team; 360 uparmored high-mobility, multipurpose, wheeled vehicles
(HMMWVs) and 1,705 heavy-chassis HMMWVs for $224 million; 3,529
trucks in the family of medium tactical vehicles for $450 million;
2,002 trucks in the family of heavy tactical vehicles for $207
million; and 41 UH–60 Black Hawk utility helicopters
for $585 million.
Total Army spending under the proposed fiscal year 2006 budget
would be $98.6 billion, a slight decline (1.4 percent) from
the $99.994 billion appropriated by Congress for fiscal year
2005. (These figures do not include supplemental appropriations,
which brought total spending for fiscal year 2005 to $115.011
billion.) The Army budget request amounts to 23.5 percent of
the President’s overall Department of Defense budget
request of $419.3 billion.
Fiscal year 2006 spending requests in the major appropriation
categories compare to fiscal year 2005 appropriations, excluding
supplemental appropriations, as follows—
• Military personnel: $41.413 billion, up $2.466 billion, or 6.3 percent.
• Operation and maintenance: $31.813 billion, down $45 million, or less
than 1 percent.
• Procurement: $11.755 billion, down $1.330 billion, or 10.2 percent.
• Research, development, test, and evaluation: $9.734 billion, down $807
million, or 7.7 percent.
• Military construction: $1.913 billion, down $211 million, or 9.9 percent.
• Family housing: $1.363 billion, down $202 million, or 12.9 percent.
The funding proposed for fiscal year 2006 will support Active Army ground operating
tempo training annually for each vehicle of 765 live miles and 85 virtual miles
and 13.1 live flying hours monthly for each aircrew in the Active Army. It also
will support 11 brigade rotations each through the National Training Center and
the Joint Readiness Training Center, 4 brigade rotations through the Combat Maneuver
Training Center in Germany, and 3 corps-level Warfighter exercises and 7 division-level
command and staff groups through the Battle Command Training Program.
The fiscal year 2005 supplemental appropriations request includes $3.3 billion
for force protection measures such as adding armor to convoy trucks and $5.4
billion for refurbishing and replacing worn-out or damaged equipment used in
Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. (These figures are mostly, but
not exclusively, for the Army.) Overall Army spending in the supplemental request
amounts to $41.216 billion.
The President also is seeking an Army budget of $110.081 billion in fiscal year
ARMY SETS NEW STRATEGIC
Improving joint logistics capabilities
is one of the strategic imperatives announced in the new
Strategic Planning Guidance (ASPG). The ASPG is a
long-range planning guide that defines the Army’s strategy for the next
10 to 20 years. Usually published every 2 years, this out-of-cycle revision
of the 2004 guidance was necessary to meet requirements set forth in the Department
of Defense Strategic Planning Guidance. Secretary of the Army Francis J. Harvey
approved the new ASPG in January.
The new guidance has 10 strategic imperatives. The other nine are—
• Implement transformation initiatives.
• Improve capabilities for homeland defense.
• Improve proficiencies against irregular challenges.
• Improve capabilities for stability operations.
• Achieve Army force capabilities to dominate in complex terrain.
• Improve Army capabilities for strategic responsiveness.
• Improve global force posture.
• Improve capabilities for battle command.
• Improve joint fires capability.
Three of the imperatives—improve capabilities for homeland defense, improve
capabilities for stability operations, and improve proficiencies against irregular
challenges—are new Army focus areas.
The ASPG addresses the requirement for logisticians to provide a supply chain
that reaches across a joint, interagency, and multinational theater. The means
of accomplishing this include developing combat service support concepts, policy,
and doctrine that support both theater-opening and distribution-based logistics
and establishing end-to-end asset visibility.
The format of the new ASPG makes it easier for the reader to understand the Army’s
strategic objectives and how the Army plans to achieve them. The 2005 ASPG can
be found on line at www.army.mil/references.
NEW LAB TO TEST FUTURE COMBAT SYSTEMS
Army and Boeing Company officials cut the ribbon on 28 January
for the 140,000-square-foot System of Systems Integration
Laboratory (SoSIL) in Huntington Beach, California.
The SoSIL is a testing and simulation lab in which soldiers and civilian
experts together will develop, test, and evaluate the Future Combat Systems
(FCS) network that will connect vehicles and warfighters on the battlefield.
The $35-million laboratory is a part of the Army’s $21.4-billion FCS
program that is scheduled to be fielded by 2014.
Colonel Charles Jorgenson, chief of staff in the Office of the Program Manager,
FCS Unit of Action, said the facility “will allow us to test all 18 platforms
in the network-centric warfare we’re trying to move to. We’ll move
some of those capabilities to a test unit beginning in 2008. And we’re
already using some of the technology.”
Boeing’s Frank DeMattia said the new high-tech laboratory also will link
suppliers and subcontractors nationwide in real time. DeMattia said that FCS
will network the new manned and unmanned ground vehicles and unmanned aerial
vehicles and integrate all the communications nodes in a brigade-sized unit
of action. SoSIL will enable those vehicles, the soldiers’ individual
equipment, and stationary sensors throughout the battlefield to work together,
Soldiers will be involved with the system’s development early in the
process in an effort to reduce the number of difficulties encountered in the
field. “We want to get the warfighter involved in the developmental process,
so if he’s looking at a display, for example, and it doesn’t look
right to him, we can make changes before we’re fully committed to a design,” DeMattia
The first integration test is set to begin in October and end in the spring
of 2006 with a mission test in which soldiers will use the equipment in a simulated
According to DeMattia, the SoSIL will allow the Army to bring both hardware
and software into the field gradually, with various components of FCS being
fielded in 2008, 2010, and 2012 before the full system is in use in 2014.
EUROPE-BASED AMC BRIGADE DEPLOYS TO
The Army Materiel Command Field Support
Brigade-Europe (AMC FSB–E) deployed
to Iraq from Germany just 2 months after it was established to provide expeditionary
logistics support to forces in the field.
“This deployment is exactly why the unit was formed [on 18 November],” said
Colonel Max Lobeto, the brigade commander. “Ours is the first such brigade
in [the] Army Materiel Command, and [it] is designed to match up with the expeditionary
The deploying contingent includes the commander and the brigade operations
command post, which is made up of both soldiers and civilian employees. “Although
many members of our command have deployed individually, this is the first time
we are going as a unit,” said Tommy Lane, the brigade’s civilian
deputy. “It makes good sense: we are experienced professionals and have
all the tools to organize the effort on the ground and reach back into AMC’s
arsenal of expertise and equipment.”
Plans call for the brigade to exercise
command and control over all AMC activities and personnel
until later this
year, when it will hand over authority to another
brigade. “We’re setting the standard for providing a modular solution
to the logistics challenges raised by an enduring and global battle against
Steve Lockridge, brigade chief of plans and operations. “What we do and
what we learn will contribute to Army Materiel Command’s continuing transformation.
We’ve always operated in support of fighting forces, but now we are doing
so in a formation that looks and acts just like the combatant commands. They’re
deploying as brigade units, organized and equipped for the mission [and] so
While the brigade command is in Iraq, more than 1,000 members of the brigade
will continue to provide logistics assistance and combat-ready equipment from
operating locations across Europe and beyond. “This new mission is an additional
task. The essential logistics support provided to U.S. Army Europe and U.S. European
Command will continue at full speed,” said Lobeto.
conducts a preflight inspection of his C–130
Hercules aircraft before takeoff from an air base
in Iraq. The C–130s are used to transport supplies
over areas where truck drivers face the greatest
INITIATIVES REDUCE CONVOY RISKS
An initiative of the U.S. Central Command’s Distribution and Deployment
Operations Center (CDDOC) reduces the number of U.S. truck drivers who have
to transit some of Iraq’s most dangerous roads each week. CDDOC is charged
with synchronizing strategic and intratheater airlift for the U.S. military.
In the past, large cargo aircraft flew into airfields that were located in
some of the most dangerous areas of Iraq, and truck convoys then delivered
supplies to forward-deployed military forces.
CDDOC’s improved distribution plan calls for strategic transports to
deliver cargo directly from the United States to several airfields that can
accommodate large aircraft. Then the cargo is flown from those airfields on
smaller C–130 Hercules transport aircraft to airstrips that are located
near large numbers of military forces.
This initiative has not totally eliminated the need for convoys to travel in
high-risk areas, but, so far, it has removed approximately 1,280 convoy drivers
per week from Iraqi roads.
CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION PROGRESSES
The Army is scheduled to begin disposing of chemical agents
at a sixth site this spring. The facility, at Pine Bluff
Arsenal, Arkansas, will destroy
approximately 3,850 tons of the nerve agents GB and VX and the blister
agents HT and HD. That amounts to 12 percent of the U.S.
stockpile of chemical agents.
As of 2 February, the Army had destroyed 11,076 tons of chemical agents,
or about 35.1 percent of the total U.S. stockpile of chemical
agents, and about
42 percent of all U.S. chemical munitions (mainly rockets and landmines).
The Army’s first chemical agent disposal facility opened at Johnston
Atoll in the Pacific in 1990 and completed its work in 2000, destroying approximately
6 percent of the Army’s chemical agents. Other disposal facilities (with
the percentages of the Army’s chemical agent stockpile they store)
began operating at Deseret Chemical Depot, Utah, in 1996 (44 percent); Anniston
Depot, Alabama, in 2003 (7 percent); Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, in
2003 (5 percent); and Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon, in 2004 (12 percent).
The disposal facility at Newport Chemical Depot, Indiana (4 percent), is
scheduled to begin operations later this year. Other facilities are planned
Grass Army Depot, Kentucky (2 percent), and Pueblo Chemical Depot, Colorado
The Deseret, Anniston, Umatilla, and Pine Bluff facilities use incineration
to destroy chemical agents, as did Johnston Atoll. Aberdeen uses a neutralization
technology, as will Newport, Blue Grass, and Pueblo.
operator loads a pallet of VX rockets into an on-site
container for movement from storage to the Tooele
Chemical Agent Disposal Facility at Deseret Chemical
ARMY SAFETY CENTER SHIFTS FOCUS
TO RISK MANAGEMENT
The Army is changing its safety program to incorporate safety into the
fabric of daily operations. As a part of this change, the Army Safety Center
Fort Rucker, Alabama, became the Army Combat Readiness Center (USACRC)
The organizational change is designed to advance the concept of composite
risk management, which seeks to develop a fuller evaluation of potential
and thus create more effective risk mitigation. Composite risk management
will focus on sustaining readiness and managing all risks—those posed by the
enemy, the environment, materiel and systems, and human
error—by shifting from an
accident-centric approach to a soldier-centric
According to Brigadier General Joseph A. Smith, USACRC Commander, “The
change is intended to move beyond the old concept of ‘safety,’ which
had become viewed by many soldiers as an occasional action rather than a constant
foundation for all other activities. In some cases, soldiers do not grasp the
outcome of being unsafe until ‘one of their own’ is involved—recognizing,
too late, the consequences of the accidental loss in making the unit less
prepared, lowering its readiness, and potentially putting the unit mission
The Army Safety Office in Washington, D.C., will focus on the compliance
aspects of safety and reinforce the use of composite risk management as a
tool to help
prevent all loss. USACRC will function as a field operating agency under
the Office of the Chief of Staff of the Army. Safety remains a foundational
of the new organization. The USARC mission includes—
• Investigating Army accidents.
• Initiating the necessary cultural changes and developing the processes,
structure, and training needed to implement composite risk management Army
• Developing predictive trend analysis using digital technology and data
mining in order to identify loss trends and preventive measures.
TRADOC IMPLEMENTS LEARNING
The Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is implementing the new,
Web-based Army Learning Management System (ALMS), which will help students,
trainers, and training managers to conduct and manage training throughout students’ Army
careers. The system is an integral component of the Army Distributed Learning
Program that provides professional military and self-development training and
The ALMS provides automated individual training management
and distributed learning capabilities. It will be used
to register and enroll students; monitor testing
and student progress; distribute, store, and present education and training
products;maintain training and education records; collect
and store feedback and evaluations; and provide a database
of education and training products and resources. It will
enable soldiers to take distributed learning courses and
manage their training records and allow civilians to take
Department of the Army-directed training.
The ALMS is accessible from the Army Knowledge Online Web
site, providing one central location for soldier and civilian
employee training needs. Implementation
of the ALMS began with Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, and is scheduled to be
complete throughout TRADOC early in 2006. Fielding to the
remaining major Army commands
will begin shortly thereafter, with full fielding completed by 2008.
PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY PROMISES
MULTIPLE BENEFITS TO MILITARY
Researchers at the Army Soldier Systems Center at Natick,
Massachusetts, believe the potential benefits to the military
of a new generation of photovoltaic (PV) technologies are
PV solar cells convert light energy into electricity without noise, moving parts,
fuel consumption, or pollutant emissions. In the last 5 years, PV technology
has evolved from the use of large, heavy, rigid, reflective, and expensive glass
panels to the use of lightweight and inexpensive devices that can be integrated
directly into textiles and warfighter systems.
When used in combination with rechargeable batteries to power such items as
night-vision goggles, PV cells could cut warfighters’ battery-load weight in half. “On
72-hour and longer missions, it makes a lot more sense to carry rechargeable
batteries,” said Steven Tucker, an electrical engineer in the center’s
Collective Protection Directorate. “You get rid of that logistics tail
by minimizing resupply with disposable batteries. The weight payback for a
photovoltaic charger and rechargeable battery combination is incredibly quick,
and out past
72 hours it just keeps getting better.”
Less weight means better mobility, and the ability to recharge batteries on
the move can increase sustainability, extend mission time and distance from
operations centers, and reduce logistics support requirements. Replacing or
decreasing the number of liquid-fuel-powered generators reduces logistics requirements
and lowers the heat and sound signature in the field for improved stealth operations.
A “power shade” that fits over two kinds of Army tents has PV material
laminated into a mesh fabric that reduces the cumulative solar irradiance by
80 to 90 percent while generating up to 1 kilowatt of power for shelter electronics
or battery recharging. On a larger scale, PV cells on shelters for aircraft
or field hospitals that cover thousands of square feet could generate 40 to
of energy in peak sunlight.
Eventually, direct integration of PV technology into soldier-borne systems may
create electronically active textiles that minimize the need for cables and connections
and provide a more streamlined and multifunctional warfighter system. A new Science
and Technology Objective that will continue through 2008 is looking at achieving
PV power generation from virtually any surface.
in 2007, the assault kitchen will provide a better
way to feed company-sized military units in the field.Armored
personnel carriers are staged for loading at Port
Beaumont, Texas, in preparation for deployment to
Southwest Asia. Nearly 2,900 tanks, trucks, and support
vehicles, or approximately 85 percent of the assets
of the 116th Brigade Combat Team, were loaded onto
MVs Cape Knox, Race, and Rise and USNS Yano in October
by the Military
Surface Deployment and Distribution Command’s
842d Transportation Battalion and deployed to Southwest
Asia to support the 116th in Operation Iraqi Freedom
III. The 116th includes Army National Guard soldiers
from Idaho, Montana, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon,