Army transformation strategy addresses the imperative
to change the Army from a Cold War-oriented design to one
that is more responsive, agile, and adaptable to present and
emerging threats across the spectrum of operations. Transforming
logistics and support for the force is an essential part of
the transformation effort.
The Army’s transformation to a modular force has changed
the munitions sustainment structure significantly. At the
tactical level, munitions capabilities have essentially migrated
one echelon forward. The functions of the division ammunition
office (DAO) now reside in the brigade ammunition office (BAO)
of the brigade support battalion (BSB) support operations
office (SPO). A larger ammunition transfer and holding point
(ATHP) now provides ammunition resupply during major combat
operations, and the ATHP now has the capability to perform
automated inventory management during stability and reconstruction
operations through the use of the Standard Army Ammunition
System-Ammunition Supply Point (SAAS–ASP) software in
conjunction with the SAAS–ATHP hardware.
At the operational level, changes under the modular force
include the elimination of the division support command, corps
support group, and corps support command and the transformation
of the theater support command. The functions formerly performed
by these organizations are now performed by the theater sustainment
command (TSC), its forward command post—called the expeditionary
sustainment command (ESC)—and the sustainment brigade.
This article provides information on the ammunition Standard
Army Management Information System (STAMIS), SAAS Modernization
(SAAS–MOD), and the environment in which it is used
in the modular force. It addresses munitions operations and
interac-tions among the various levels of munitions support.
It also explains to combat arms, combat support, and combat
service support (CSS) commanders and their staffs how to employ
SAAS–MOD to best improve munitions support.
The Army of Excellence (AOE) force provided for the performance
of ammunition materiel management functions at the theater
area army, theater army, and corps materiel management centers.
Modular force transformation has migrated these functions
to the TSC headquarters SPO (in the distribution management
center [DMC]), the ESC headquarters SPO (in the DMC), and
the Sustainment Brigade headquarters SPO. Each of these organizations
is now documented in a table of organization and equipment
(TOE) with a munitions branch and resourced with a SAAS-Materiel
Management Center (SAAS–MMC) suite. So ammunition materiel
management functions are now performed at the TSC, ESC, and
sustainment brigade headquarters. These functions involve
the overall management of authorizations and requirements
and redistribution of ammunition assets within the theater.
For effective munitions sustainment operations, the TSC must
be the single authority for establishing and executing the
munitions automation support architecture. The TSC headquarters
DMC munitions branch, as the senior munitions manager in the
theater, is the focal point in the theater architecture. The
munitions branch of the DMC must provide subordinate sustainment
brigades, modular ammunition companies, and ATHPs throughout
the theater with all information required to establish the
SAAS–MOD environment. This information includes storage
point codes, Training Ammunition Management Information System
(TAMIS) installation codes, munitions account codes (Worldwide
Ammunition Reporting System, management center, storage point,
and Department of Defense Identification Code account codes),
authorized stockage levels, reporting structure, communications
frequencies, and communications connection details. Some of
these functions, such as stockage objective and TAMIS information,
require close co-ordination with operational-level G–3
staff elements to ensure a synchronized effort.
A detailed connectivity matrix of all subordinate operating
nodes is an effective method for ensuring that communication
is established and maintained. Senior materiel managers and
CSS automation management office (CSSAMO) staff should consider
tracking data elements such as operation location (site name
and storage point code), operating unit, unit identification
code, Department of Defense Activity Address Code (DODAAC),
Internet protocol address, type of network access (for example,
Unclassified but Sensitive Internet Protocol Router Network
[NI-PRNET], CSS Automated Information Systems Interface [CAISI],
or very small aperture terminal [VSAT]), and date of last
connection by type (file transfer protocol, secured file transfer
protocol, email transfer, or floppy-disk transfer). This matrix
can be shared with network architects, information assurance
managers, and network operations centers to ensure that the
necessary Internet ports and protocols are maintained in an
open status across the various network access points.
Each logistics echelon with a munitions branch is resourced
with SAAS–MMC and munitions personnel. The Army has
established a new military occupational specialty (MOS) for
ammunition stock control and accounting specialists (MOS
89A) and will begin training new Soldiers in fiscal year 2008.
management specialist will be the primary operator for SAAS–MMC
and will bring greater subject-matter-expert depth to munitions
In a mature modular force deployed environment, the TSC headquarters
DMC munitions branch focuses on the link to the national-level
provider (the Joint Munitions Life Cycle Management Command)
and its subordinate national inventory control points. The
TSC also maintains authority for the entire theater architecture.
If a theater storage area is operating within the theater,
the munitions branch provides materiel management for the
theater storage area’s ammunition support activity.
of the changes in the munitions sustainment structure
between the Army of Excellence and the
When employed, the ESC headquarters DMC munitions
branch provides materiel management for subordinate sustainment
brigades and for theater storage areas and corps storage
areas assigned directly to the ESC. The ESC headquarters generates
directives for subordinate sustainment brigades to pass on
to assigned ammunition support activities. For example, if
a shipping directive crosses a sustainment brigade’s
area of responsibility, it should be generated from the ESC
headquarters SAAS–MMC system. This process requires
constant coordination between the ESC and sustainment brigade
The sustainment brigade headquarters munitions branch directly
manages stocks in assigned ammunition support activities
through the SAAS–MMC suite organic to the branch. They
generate directives for all movements within their assigned
area of operations. Directives that are designated for out-of-sector
movements are generated by higher echelon SAAS–MMC operational
Division Versus Brigade Ammunition Office
The DAO performed munitions management functions for
the tactical level in the AOE force. This management
function has moved forward one echelon in modular
force transformation. The functions of managing brigade ammunition requirements
now are performed at the BAO. They include maintaining ammunition requirements
and visibility and distributing ammunition within the brigade combat team
(BCT). The supported battalion’s S–4 is still the main logistics
The new, robust BSB is a combat multiplier for the brigade commander, who
now owns his own support. It is a more robust organization than the forward
support battalion it replaced; it has base companies and forward support
companies to support all of the brigade combined arms battalions.
One difference between the original Stryker brigade design and the current
modular force design is the addition of an ordnance captain to the BSB BAO.
This force structure realignment allows for the placement of the ammunition
warrant officer in the ATHP. Management functions for the BAO include maintaining
ammunition requirements and visibility and distribution within the BCT. The
BAO is responsible for distributing ammunition, verifying unit requirements, and tracking ammunition
coming into the BCT.
The BAO coordinates munitions sustainment requirements with the first SAAS–MMC
operational node within the support chain. The SAAS–DAO system is resourced
in the BSB BAO with an MOS 89B sergeant first class as the primary operator.
Currently, the only online STAMIS data exchange between SAAS–DAO and
SAAS–MMC is the passing of resupply requests (RSR [required supply rate]
transaction code) from SAAS–DAO to SAAS–MMC.
Ammunition Transfer Point Versus ATHP
In the AOE force, an ammunition transfer point (ATP) was resourced in each
divisional forward support battalion, separate brigade, and armored cavalry
regiment. Doctrine stated that an ATP was an event, not a location. Its
mission was to transfer munitions from corps-level transportation assets
to the vehicles
of using unit support platoons without storing the munitions or allowing
the munitions to touch the ground. The ATP was manned with MOS 89B noncommissioned
officers (NCOs) and Soldiers, who used SAAS–ATP operated by the DAO
NCO as an issue and inventory aid.
The modular force ATHP is approximately twice the size of its AOE-equivalent
ATP. It is documented with SAAS–ATHP (line item number Z00712) and
with an MOS 890A ammunition warrant officer; dur-ing the next TOE revision,
MOS 89A stock control and accounting specialist will be added. The ATHP
also is documented with CAISI and radio frequency identification suites
the logistician and populate the intransit visibility common operating
The SAAS–ATHP is a new hardware and software configuration derived
from Force XXI and Stryker BCT developments. The hardware is the same as
modernized SAAS–ATP suite. The soft-ware is the same as SAAS–ASP.
The use of the soft-ware at this forward echelon provides for inventory
management and national-level visibility of retail stocks at the BCT level.
SAAS–ATP software could not provide these doctrinal capabilities
in a stability and reconstruction operations environment since it was
as an inventory and issue aid for high-intensity major combat operations.
The main differences between an ASP and an ATHP are doctrinal employment,
capabilities, and capacity. The notional ASP is operated by 1 or more ammunition
platoons, while an ATHP is a 12-man section with very limited capabilities
and capacity. During major combat operations, the ATHP needs to focus on
throughput operations and rapidly transfer munitions to the using unit.
and reconstruction operations, the ATHP provides the brigade commander
with the capability to centralize munition combat load inventories not
for immediate combat operations. The ATHP now can report those stocks
operational-level managers and national-level visibility systems in the
same manner that SAAS–ASP does.
The BSB distribution company’s SAAS–ATHP must maintain connectivity
with all SAAS–MMC operating locations in the chain of support. The
ATHP also maintains communications with the Headquarters, Department of
the Army (DA), G–3 TAMIS–Redesigned server when it is operating
the SAAS–ASP software variant.
New capability was fielded to SAAS with Software Change Package 08, which
provided for a data sharing interface between TAMIS and SAAS. Using units
now develop and submit ammunition requests (DA Form 581) in TAMIS. These
electronic documents are passed to SAAS platforms operating the ASP software.
operator can accept or reject the request, with status passing back to
the requestor. If the ammunition request is accepted, it is preposted to
issue process. The SAAS software transmits issue and turn-in transactional
data back to TAMIS for posting to using unit accounts. This replaces the
old training reporting process in SAAS–ASP, which was transmission
of INFI files by the stock control section to TAMIS–R.
Adding Munitions Capabilities to the CSSAMO
Several resources are available to the combat commander and his staff when
they use logistics automation. In current deployed operations, automation
logistics assistance teams have been established in both the Kuwaiti and
Iraqi zones. These organizations provide a ready reach capability for
the logistics commander to access logistics automation subject matter expertise.
The Army is institutionalizing this support in the CSSAMO. In future logistics
unit TOEs, a SAAS–MOD support structure will be added to the basic
CSSAMO capability of lo-gistics automation support. The future CSSAMO will
be documented in a TOE with an MOS 89A ammunition stock control and accounting
sergeant and a SAAS–DAO suite. This will provide the capability to
SAAS–MOD software problems irrespective of the echelon of employment.
The addition of an NCO to support SAAS–MOD provides a level of expertise
not previously available to the logistics commander.
The sustainment commander and his staff must ensure that the CSSAMO munitions
sergeant is trained and has the resources needed to perform his SAAS–MOD
support duties. Additional training in systems administration and database
management should be considered. This single representative will be the
on-site troubleshooter for SAAS–MOD database and connectivity issues.
The Army Logistics Management College at Fort Lee, Virginia, provides
additional institutional and distributive training for CSSAMO personnel.
The CSSAMO munitions sergeant needs to establish and maintain liaison
with SAAS–MOD operating elements within his parent, supported, and
supporting organizations. In a deployed environment, he needs to rapidly
identify supported organizations, assess support requirements, and coordinate
for higher-echelon support. The CSSAMO munitions sergeant must maintain
communication with the Project Manager, SAAS–MOD, Customer Assistance
Office and with higher echelons of the SAAS–MOD support structure.
Coordination for DODAAC information and NIPERNET access should be a primary
consideration during the initial stages of any deployed operation. Insights
gained from recent operations have shown that connectivity issues are one
of the most significant challenges to effective STAMIS operation.
Eventually, SAAS–MOD will be subsumed into the Global Combat Service
Support-Army (Field/Tactical) as a component of the Single Army Logistics
Enterprise. Until this enterprise solution is fully realized, logistics
commanders, staffs, and managers at all levels will need to continue to
maintain competence in the automated munitions management process through
the use of SAAS–MOD.
Chief Warrant Officer (W–4) Dave Baron, USA (Ret.), serves as a combat
developer with the Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRA-DOC) Capability
Manager for Sustainment Command and Control at the Army Combined Arms
Support Command at Fort Lee, Virginia. A graduate of the Warrant Officer
Staff Course, he holds an associate’s degree in liberal arts from
the University of the State of New York.
Lieutenant Colonel Keith A. Beverley, USA (Ret.), works for Logistics and
Environmental Support Services Corporation (LESCO) and serves as a logistics
systems analyst for the TRADOC Capability Manager for Sustainment Command
and Control at the Army Combined Arms Support Command at Fort Lee, Virginia.
A graduate of the Army Command and General Staff College and the Logistics
Executive Development Course, he holds a master’s degree in business
management from Troy State University.