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ALOG NEWS
ARMY LEADERS DESCRIBE STRATEGIC
RATIONALE FOR ARMY CHANGE

The Army’s senior leaders have released a paper summarizing the intellectual foundations for the profound changes that the Army is now pursuing. The paper, “Serving a Nation at War: A Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expedition-ary Capabilities,” emphasizesthe need for transformation even as the Nation is fighting a war in a new strategic environment. That environment is essen- tially “a war of ideas” against non-state adversaries violently opposed to Western values.
As summarized by Acting Secretary of the Army Les Brownlee and Army Chief of Staff General Peter J. Schoomaker—



The single most significant component of our new strategic reality is that . . . this war will be a protracted one. Whereas for most of our lives the default condition has been peace, now our default expectation must be conflict. This new strategic context is the logic for reshaping the Army to be an Army of campaign quality with joint and expeditionary capabilities. The lessons learned in two-and-a-half years of war have already propelled a wide series of changes in the Army and across the Joint team. The Army always has changed and always will. But an army at war must change the way it changes.

The Army is adapting to this new environment by seeking to create a new “mindset” that is both joint and expeditionary. Accordingly, the Army is working with the other armed services to achieve “joint interdependence”—

Interdependence is more than just interoperability, the assurance that service capabilities can work together smoothly. It is even more than integration to improve their collective efficiency and effectiveness. Joint interdependence purposefully combines service capabilities to maximize their total complementary and reinforcing effects, while minimizing their relative vulnerabilities.

The Army will organize for the new realities by developing more modular units and headquarters. At the same time, it will stabilize the force by increasing unit cohesion. The Army also will adjust the mix of Active and Reserve component forces, with some high-demand, low-density capabilities shifting to the Active Army.
Joint sustainment will be the hallmark of Army and Defense logistics—

All the services have key interdependencies in the logistics arena and will experience even more in an expeditionary environment. There is a pressing demand for a joint end-to-end logistics structure that permits reliable support of distributed operations in which deployment, employment, and sustainment are simultaneous
. . . . all services [will have to] fully embrace joint logistics, eliminate gaps in logistics functions, and reduce overlapping support.

To sustain an expeditionary force, the Army must develop an “effects-based logistics capability” in which logistics support is linked to maneuver capabilities. (See related story on page 2.) The Army will need to create—

• A distribution-based sustainment system.
• Army deployment and sustainment commands that can serve as the basis of joint logistics command and control elements.
• Better force protection of logistics installations and lines of communication.
• Fighting platforms that can be deployed
more rapidly.
• The best possible individual equipment for
the soldier.
• An improved Army aviation fleet.
• Significant improvements in conducting
“ network-enabled operations” to increase actionable intelligence and situational awareness.

The full paper can be accessed at www.oft. osd.mil/library/library_files/document_376_JEC_
Paper_5.pdf.

 

SENSE-AND-RESPOND PROTOTYPE
COULD TRANSFORM RESUPPLY

The Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Force Transformation, in partnership with a Washington-based company, Synergy Inc., is testing a prototype resupply system that may help solve the type of resupply problems experienced in the early days of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The new resupply prototype views all military units—both combat and support—as potential resuppliers for forward-deployed forces.

During the military’s rapid march to Baghdad, Iraq, early last year, logistics trains found it difficult to keep up with the fast-moving combat troops. Necessary maintenance and the delivery of urgently needed spare parts and supplies were delayed as a result.

Resupply problems have heightened since asymmetric warfare has become the norm for military engagements. Logistics systems that were designed to resupply units engaged in force-on-force battles have difficulty supporting combat units that are battling terrorists and other unpredictable threats.

“The more we operate using our traditional processes, our traditional structures and attrition-based [logistics] models, parts of our machinery are getting less effective on the battlefield,” said Navy Captain Linda Lewandowski, who heads the new Sense-and-Respond Logistics (SARL) project in the DOD Office of Force Transformation.

The prototype being tested uses a version of SARL. When a field commander requests more ammunition, for example, the logistics network will query all nearby combat and support units to see where ammunition might be located. The units will respond, either automatically or manually, and the system will decide which units can best fill the order based on distance, time required, mission priority, and other variables.

The prototype has gone through six limited technical assessments and was tested in July by elements of the I and III Marine Expeditionary Forces of Marine Forces, Pacific. According to Fred Czerner, Vice President of Technology Services at Synergy, Inc., the experiment, although small in scale, will demonstrate the system’s ability to sense a need and respond to it. Czerner believes that a major exercise that is oriented specifically toward sense-and-respond concepts and technologies will be conducted some time in the future. “Logistics does not play in most of the exercises, wargames, and experiments today to any large measure. Normally, it’s an operational result that you’re seeking, and logistics sometimes gets in the way of doing an operational training event.”

The steep cultural learning curve involved in the logistics transformation effort also has delayed larger DOD experiments. “The other reason for doing small and . . . relatively simple [testing] is that’s what the culture can bear right now,” Lewandowski said. “Can the technology do more? Yes.”

AMC OFFERS LESSONS LEARNED SYSTEM

To improve its support to soldiers, Army civilians, and contractors and to the development of new technologies, the Army Materiel Command (AMC) has created an online system for recording the critical observations and comments of personnel in the field. Originally focused on lessons learned from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, the new system—AMC Lessons Learned (AMCLL)
— allows all Army personnel to submit their comments using a Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) or Secure Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) connection on any outstanding materiel or logistics issue. Those with SIPRNET access also can view the action plans and progress of proponent agencies in finding adequate solutions to the challenges facing warfighters and their civilian supporters.

Using a modified and expanded Joint Universal Lessons Learned System (JULLS) format, the AMC Lessons Learned Team created Web-based collection tools that gathered 267 separate observations from across AMC from July to September 2003. These results were presented to the AMC Lessons Learned Conference held in September at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The team then grouped similar observations into action plans. With many of these action plans assigned to AMC proponents for development, the entire command has been able to participate in developing future doctrine and policy.

The NIPRNET and SIPRNET collection tools went live in January 2004. The AMC Lessons Learned Team has continued its collection efforts on Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom planning and on the execution of such programs as the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP), Army Pre-positioned Stocks (APS) quality and sustainment, and contractors on the battlefield. The team is working to expand the system’s scope by collecting data on the Army’s equipment Reset program, AMC support of Stryker combat vehicle deployment, AMC actions supporting the Army’s transition to Unit of Action and Unit of Employment modularity, and continuing support of contingency operations overseas and at home.

AMC is seeking more input from military and civilian personnel across the Army to expand on the project’s initial success. The AMC G–3 has already begun to use the AMCLL system to both evaluate and develop solutions to operational observations and to reevaluate those solutions and action plans through the use of data collected during subsequent AMC exercises.

Personnel may submit observations and comments based on their field experiences and view the action plans and lessons learned database on the SIPRNET connection at hqamc-web.army.smil.mil/ AMCLL/SecurityMsg.aspx. Those using the NIPRNET-based site can contribute their observations by reaching the data collection site at www.amc.army.mil/G3/AMC-LL/SecurityMsg.aspx. At this time, only SIPRNET users may view the database and action plans.

For more information, send an email to charles.baldwin@us.army.mil or david.muhlenkamp @us.army.mil or call (703) 806–9340 or –9341 (DSN 656–9340 or –9341).

CSS VSAT CONNECTS LOGISTICIANS

A prototype satellite communications system promises to give forward-deployed combat service support (CSS) units communications capabilities equal to those used in garrison. The system, CSS Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), can be operational within an hour of a unit’s arrival in the theater.

CSS VSAT, when used in connection with the Multi-Media Communications System and the CSS Automated Information Systems Interface, provides worldwide voice, video, and data communications capability for forward operating bases. With this system, CSS units can share documents, process requisitions, conduct online meetings, send and receive text messages, and use the system as a short-range telephone. The system acts as a combat multiplier by increasing operational readiness while reducing the downtime of combat systems.

Packaged in five transit cases, the VSAT system includes built-in global positioning system receivers, a motorized satellite antenna, and a laptop computer that runs the CSS VSAT software program. The software enables the user to set up a satellite communications link and acquire Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) access almost anywhere in the world by automatically orienting the antenna using a global positioning system, determining which satellite will be used, configuring the modem, and pointing the antenna.

The Army Product Manager for Defense Wide Transmission Systems (PM DWTS) developed the CSS VSAT system using commercial off-the-shelf technology and fielded a prototype of the system to the 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) (3ID) at Fort Stewart, Georgia, in early May. The PM DWTS fielding team trained the soldiers on how to assemble and operate CSS VSAT before they deployed to the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, where they would test the system. Once the division had the system up and operating at the NTC, the fielding team went to each unit and added capabilities beyond the transmission of data. These included text messaging, text conferencing, collaboration software, and Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) telephone capability. These capabilities allowed soldiers to conduct meetings, request assistance, and confer with one another without having to travel, saving them the time and effort of arranging transportation and traveling, and increasing their safety by keeping them off of roads.

Major Geoff DeTingo, G–4 planner for 3ID, was very impressed with CSS VSAT, saying, “This system is amazing. You want to talk performance indicators? Generally speaking, on rotation, it’s 1 to 4 days before there are communications and everybody’s talking. With VSATs, everybody was up on the first day within hours. Over the first four days, more than 2,500 electronic parts requisitions were sent via VSATs—more than double the normal requisition data flow.”

PM DWTS had previously fielded a limited number of the prototype CSS VSAT to forward-deployed CSS units in Operation Iraqi Freedom, where the system also received high marks. “The reliability and performance of the VSAT has truly been extraordinary,” Chief Warrant Officer (W–2) Brian Wimmer, automation management officer for the 4th Infantry Division in Iraq, said. “The benefits of having dedicated VSAT resources are undeniable.” The fielding of production terminals to support 3ID transformation is scheduled for completion in September.

SDDC IMPROVES WEB SITE
FOR TRANSPORTATION CALCULATIONS


The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is making several improvements to the Defense Table of Official Distances (DTOD) Web site. The DTOD program provides official distance mileage calculations for Department of Defense (DOD) activities worldwide. SDDC operates and maintains the DTOD program for all of the armed services and Defense agencies. DTOD mileage calculations support payments of temporary duty (TDY) and permanent change of station (PCS) moves and movements of DOD cargo and household goods. Commercial freight and household goods carriers use DTOD mileage information to calculate their rate submissions.

The improvements to the DTOD Web site will allow users to—
• Change the font size initially shown for more comfortable viewing without having to reconfigure their browser options or change Web pages.
• Ask questions through a new, dynamic help system that displays links to frequently asked questions (“FAQs”) and “Help Topics” on every page of the Web site. These features will put answers and assistance on the same page with the question.
• Access a new “Quick Trip” window that puts an authenticated user one click away from obtaining a distance.
• Use a new “Route History” capability that saves the last 10 routes calculated for each user. Users can fill out the “Trip Entry Form” with just one click if they are pulling the route from their individual route history. This gives users greater flexibility for comparing routes and computing more than one leg of a trip without needing to open multiple browsers.
• Transition more easily between regions and route types by using an enhanced “Trip Entry Form.”
• Benefit from enhanced “Maps” support. Maps will be easier to use because of “point-and-click” panning, removal of confusing symbols on maps, and simplified directions that will make comparisons of directions easier to perform.
SDDC expects to implement all of the enhancements by 1 October. The DTOD Web site is at http://dtod.sddc.army.mil.

BDU REPLACEMENT INTRODUCED

After two decades as the Army’s standard field clothing, the battledress uniform (BDU) will be replaced. In June, the Army unveiled its successor, the Army combat uniform (ACU), a new design based on input from noncommissioned officers and enlisted soldiers. The wrinkle-free uniform with a digitized camouflage pattern was field tested by Stryker brigade soldiers at Army training centers and in Iraq.
The ACU incorporates 18 changes to the BDU, and the camouflage pattern was changed to a green and sandy brown adaptation of the Marine Corps uniform digital print.

The ACU will consist of a blouse, trousers, moisture wicking t-shirt, and brown combat boots. It will replace both versions of the BDU and the desert camouflage uniform. Although the black beret will be the normal headgear for the ACU, a matching patrol cap is available to be worn at the commander’s discretion.
The changes include—







• A mandarin collar that can be worn up or down.
• Rank insignia centered on the front of the jacket.
• Velcro for attaching the unit patch, skill tabs, and recognition devices.
• Zippered front closure that opens from the top and bottom.
• Elbow pouch for internal elbow pad inserts.
• Knee pouch for internal knee pad inserts.
• Drawstring leg tie.
• Tilted chest pockets with Velcro closure.
• Three-slot pen pocket on bottom of sleeve.
• Velcro sleeve cuff closure.
• Shoulder pockets with Velcro.
• Forward tilted cargo pockets.
• Integrated blouse bellows for increased upper body mobility.
• Integrated friend or foe identification square on both left and right shoulder pocket flaps.
• Bellowed calf storage pocket on left and right leg.
• Moisture-wicking desert tan t-shirt.
• Patrol cap with double-thick bill and inter-
nal pocket.
• Improved hot-weather desert boot or temperate-weather desert boot.

Each change was made for a specific purpose. For example, the bottom pockets were removed from the jacket and placed on the shoulders so soldiers can access them while wearing body armor. “This isn’t about a cosmetic redesign of the uniform,” said Colonel John Norwood, the Project Manager for Clothing and Individual Equipment at Program Executive Office Soldier. “It’s a functionality change of the uniform that will improve the ability of soldiers to execute their combat mission.”

The Army will begin fielding the ACU to deploying units in April 2005, with a completion date of December 2007 for fielding to the entire Army. The ACU will cost $88, which is $30 more than the BDU. However, since the ACU is made of permanent press fabric, and soldiers will no longer have to pay to have patches sewn on, uniform maintenance costs are expected to be lower than they are for BDUs.

ARMY MODULARIZATION SCHEDULE SET

As the Army transforms, it is converting its active divisions to modular, brigade-plus-sized units of action. The first division to complete this conversion was the 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Stewart, Georgia, which grew from three brigade combat teams to four as it became a modular combat force. The Army plans to convert the nine remaining divisions to units of action by fiscal year 2007.

The conversions will be completed as follows: The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, will convert this fiscal year. In fiscal year 2005, the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Carson, Colorado, and the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) at Fort Drum, New York, will convert. The 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas, the 25th Infantry Division (Light) at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, will convert in fiscal year 2006. Pending funding and approval by the Department of Defense, the 2nd Infantry Division in South Korea, the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) in Wurzburg, Germany, and the 1st Armored Division in Wiesbaden, Germany, are scheduled for conversion in fiscal year 2007.

The Army National Guard also will begin modularizing its brigade combat teams into units of action, starting next year with three brigades. Six additional National Guard brigades are slated for modularization each year between fiscal years 2006 and 2010.

Modularization will affect about 100,000 positions. Many soldiers in less needed Cold War specialties, such as field artillery and air defense, will have to retrain for positions in greater demand today, such as infantrymen, military police, civil affairs specialists, and truck drivers.

The modularization is the largest restructure the Army has made in 50 years.

 

 

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