The Army’s senior logisticians, speaking
at the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) annual
meeting in Washington in October, emphasized the need
for developing an expeditionary logistics force that can operate across the joint
and combined environment that increasingly characterizes warfare.
The Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff, G–4, Lieutenant General C.V. Christianson,
used an analogy comparing buses to taxis to illustrate where Army logistics must
go. Buses use a structured approach to serving customers, following fixed routes
with fixed stops, while taxis are more flexible and responsive, having no fixed
routes or schedules but moving where and when their customers request. According
to General Christianson, “We need both.” The Army needs to have the
capabilities to provide support depending on the demands of the operational environment
customer requirements, he said.
General Christianson noted that there must a single entity responsible for joint
theater logistics that can synchronize and integrate all capabilities; responsive
support that meets commanders’ needs; agile sustainment that adapts to
rapidly changing environments; and joint interdependencies that leave no gaps
in capabilities but instead create only planned overlaps.
Major General Ann E. Dunwoody, the Commanding General of the Army Combined Arms
Support Command, described how Army combat service support training is changing
from an emphasis on the technical expertise of soldiers to an expanded emphasis
on their tactical skills and how Army organization is changing from layered and
heavy to expeditionary and modular structures.
Major General Robert T. Dail, the Director of Operations, J–3, of the U.S. Transportation
Command (TRANSCOM), reviewed recent initiatives undertaken by TRANSCOM in its
role as the Department of Defense (DOD) Distribution Process Owner. These initiatives
include continuing to build TRANSCOM as the single distribution process owner,
codifying joint logistics processes, consolidating global container management
under the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, developing TRANSCOM
as the portfolio manager for DOD supply-chain information technology systems
(see related story on page 43), and integrating operations and logistics (both
processes and systems). The goal is to create a force and sustainment mover (the
Distribution Process Owner) that connects capability providers to the warfighter.
Representing the other major DOD-level logistics organization, the Defense Logistics
Agency (DLA), Vice Admiral Keith W. Lippert, its director, said DLA is concentrating
its efforts on reducing customer wait time (CWT) to support the warfighter and
transforming its business processes through its Business Systems Modernization
program. Reducing CWT involves such initiatives as forward stock positioning,
establishment of the Deployment and Distribution Operations Center (DDOC) in
the U.S. Central Command, and studying the creation of an afloat distribution
center and a scalable, deployable Defense distribution depot capability.
Brigadier General David A. Fastabend, the Director of Concept Development and
Experimentation at the Army Training and Doctrine Command’s (TRADOC’s)
Futures Center, talked about the importance of developing joint interdependencies.
These interdependencies include joint command and control; joint fires and effects;
joint force projection, with the Army being the most dependent of the services
on joint force projection capabilities; joint air and missile defense; and joint
sustainment, which is closely related to force projection since the services
share the same lines of communication.
General Kevin P. Byrnes, the Commanding General of TRADOC, summarized the significance
of the transformation to an expeditionary force and reiterated the need for adaptability. “Expeditionary” does
not mean only speed in deploying and providing support, he observed, but also
the ability to adapt to changing environments.
MORE UP-ARMORED VEHICLES HEADED FOR
Nearly 5,100 up-armored high-mobility, multi-purpose, wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs)
have been delivered to Army and Marine Corps units in Iraq, and another 724
are on ships en route to the theater. The vehicles will provide increased protection
against grenades, improvised explosive devices, and small-arms fire.
AM General, the company that builds the up-armored HMMWVs, operates around-the-clock
to produce the vehicles as quickly as possible. In addition to increased armor
protection, up-armored HMMWVs have ballistic-resistant glass and more rugged
suspension systems that can handle the added weight of the armor. They also
have air conditioners, which enable crews to operate with the windows up.
To reduce the vulnerability of deployed troops while the new vehicles are being
manufactured, the Army has designed and produced its own add-on armor kits.
Army employees at Letterkenny Army Depot, Pennsylvania; Anniston
Army Depot, Alabama; Red River Army Depot, Texas; Sierra
Army Depot, California; Watervliet
Arsenal, New York; Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois; and Crane Ammunition Activity,
Indiana, are working three shifts a day to produce the Army-designed kits.
So far, they have produced 8,800 add-on-armor kits, 8,700
of which have already
been installed in vehicles in Iraq. O’Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt, the
contractor chosen by the Army to produce add-on armor kits, has provided approximately
kits so far. The current requirement is for 13,872 kits.
Add-on armor kits have been installed on approximately 400 heavy, expanded-mobility
tactical trucks, 35 palletized load system tactical trucks, and 450 trucks
in the Army’s family of medium tactical vehicles. In addition, 70 armored
support vehicles are en route to Iraq, and the Army is in the process of buying
the new armored support vehicle, which Motsek describes as a “mini Stryker,” that
is larger and has more armor protection than even the up-armored HMMWVs.
SDDC CREATES TRANSPORTATIONTERMINAL
GROUP IN KUWAIT
The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) stood up a
new group headquarters in October at Camp Spearhead near the port of Ash Shuiaba,
Kuwait—the 595th Transportation Terminal Group (Provisional). Until the
establishment of this group, soldiers and civilians detailed from two existing
SDDC groups provided SDDC’s
presence in the U.S. Central Command area of operations. First was the 598th
Transportation Terminal Group at Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Then port and
container management operations in Iraq, Kuwait, and other Persian Gulf countries
were performed by an ad hoc unit known as SDDC Southwest Asia that was drawn
largely from the 599th Transportation Terminal Group at Wheeler Army Airfield
The 595th group headquarters was created to increase continuity with the warfighter,
host nation authorities, and commercial carriers operating in the region and
enhance SDDC responsibilities in end-to-end deployment and distribution support
throughout the theater.
The 595th initially will be staffed by 40 soldiers and 40 civilians. Formation
of the 595th gives SDDC four operating groups. The others are the 598th, the
599th, and the 597th Transportation Terminal Group at Sunny Point, North Carolina.
TRANSCOM WILL OVERSEE DOD
SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION SYSTEMS
In a move designed to strengthen the U.S. Transportation Command’s
(TRANSCOM’s) role as the Department of Defense (DOD)
Distribution Process Owner, DOD has designated TRANSCOM as
the portfolio manager for DOD supply-chain information technology
DOD is using portfolio managers as a tool for transforming
information technology systems while curbing costs. TRANSCOM
management of supply-chain-related information technology systems
will reinforce its responsibilities for improving the effectiveness
and interoperability of distribution, sustainment, and force
movement throughout DOD.
Commenting on the portfolio designation, the TRANSCOM commander,
Air Force General John W. Handy, wrote, “[We] look forward
to working with [DOD] and our national partners to take this
necessary step. It will provide much-needed horizontal integration
among the disparate distribution processes, systems, and data
architectures and is critical to improving warfighter distribution.”
Black Hawk helicopter equipped with the new IMD HUMS
sits on display at the Pentagon in August
DATA RECORDING WILL EXTEND
LIFESPAN OF HELICOPTER COMPONENTS
New technology being installed on UH–60L Black Hawk helicopters records
preventive maintenance information that will help extend the lifespan of helicopter
The Integrated Mechanical Diagnostic Device Health Usage Monitoring System (IMD
HUMS) collects and processes data on the aircraft’s critical mechanical
systems and components. Use of IMD HUMS will base replacement of components on
real measurements taken in combat rather than at the end of their projected lifespan,
which will reduce significantly the cost of parts and in-theater maintenance
“This is the first system that recognizes regime profiles, which allows
us to extend component lives,” said Colonel Cory Mahanna, Project Manager
for Utility Helicopters. “The system monitors in real time what the aircraft
Information on restrictions, inefficiencies, inspections,
and service schedules of an aircraft is collected by the
IMD HUMS and stored on a data card. The data
can be downloaded onto a battalion’s intranet so the status of all of
its aircraft can be monitored by maintenance officers, pilots, commanders,
and standards officers. In remote locations that do not have intranet access,
the IMD HUMS can be downloaded onto a standalone computer. To meet flight safety
objectives, the system also directs signals and data to cockpit voice and flight
The cost of IMD HUMS installation is $150,000 per helicopter. Congress has
allocated $56 million through 2005 for the project.
NEW ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY
IS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY
The Army has revised its basic strategy for managing the environmental concerns
that affect its missions. The new strategy—the first revision of fundamental
Army thinking on the environment in 12 years—is called “The Army
Strategy for the Environment: Sustain the Mission—Secure the Future” and
was approved by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army
The strategy is based on the principle of sustainability, which, in an Army
context, means fostering a recognition of the interrelationships among the
Army’s missions, the natural environment in which the Army trains and
operates, and the communities that are affected by Army activities. It “applies
a community, regional, and ecosystem approach to managing natural resources
on [Army] installations.”
The strategy has six goals—
• Foster an ethic within the Army that moves beyond complying with environmental
laws and regulations to incorporating sustainability “into all functional
• Strengthen Army operations “by reducing [the Army’s] environmental
footprint through more sustainable practices.” For example, zero emissions
of heat, light, noise, and waste, while improving environmental quality, also
will “reduce the [Army’s] operational signature, environmental footprint,
and logistical support tail.”
• “Meet current and future training, testing, and other mission requirements
by sustaining land, air, and water resources.” As one example, the “Army
will sustain its ranges . . . to maintain [their] resiliency . . . [and] protect
the environment and . . . surrounding communities from impacts of training and
• “Minimize impacts and total ownership costs of Army systems, materiel,
facilities, and operations by integrating the principles and practices of sustainability.”
• Enhance the health, safety, and well-being of soldiers, Army civilians
and families, and installation neighbors.
• Adopt innovative technology to meet Army sustainability goals.
The complete text of the strategy is available at https://www.asaie.army.mil/Public/ESOH/doc/ArmyEnvStrategy.pdf.
NEW ACQUISITION STRATEGY TO SPEED
CONNECTIVITY TO SOLDIERS
A revised acquisition strategy authorized in September by the Acting Under
Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics could mean
that soldiers will have new tactical network technology much sooner than previously
thought. General Dynamics C4 Systems and Lockheed Martin Mission Systems, which
were working under separate contracts with the Army to develop parallel Warfighter
Information Network-Tactical (WIN–T) capabilities, now have combined
forces in order to establish a single baseline for the WIN–T program.
WIN–T is expected to become the Army’s premier integrated communications
network, connecting soldiers through a high-speed, highly secure wireless voice,
data, and video network.
According to Colonel Angel Colon, the WIN–T Project Manager, the combined
effort will enable the Army to settle on network architecture within the next
few months. “A single-baseline approach sets the conditions to incrementally
provide capabilities to the Current Force,” Colon said. “Soldiers
will benefit from this combined effort because it opens the door for the latest
in information technology to be fielded where real-time, quality information
is most highly valued—with our deployed and combat-ready units.”
The previous acquisition strategy called for the Army to select a single contractor
for the new tactical network technology just before production. In the combined
effort, General Dynamics will be the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin will
provide complementary technical expertise and capabilities as a major subcontractor
responsible for 50 percent of the effort.
Don Keller, project director for WIN–T, notes, “The single-baseline
approach also provides a single focus for other interdependent developmental
efforts, including the Future Combat Systems and Joint Tactical Radio Systems.
The Army will . . . benefit in the final product by incorporating the strongest
features of each contractor’s design in a ‘best-of-breed’ approach.”
DEFENSE ACQUISITION GUIDEBOOK
In October, the Acting Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology,
and Logistics approved the provisional release of the Defense Acquisition Guidebook.
The new guidebook is designed to serve as a companion to Department of Defense
(DOD) Directive 5000.1, The Defense Acquisition System, and DOD Instruction
5000.2, Operation of the Defense Acquisition System; these documents, which
were released in May 2003, are the revised acquisition policy documents that
established the policy framework for translating mission needs into stable,
affordable, and well-managed programs. Release of the guidebook fulfills DOD’s
commitment to design a transformed acquisition system and supporting policy
that foster efficiency, flexibility, creativity, and innovation.
The guidebook is an interactive, Web-based capability designed to provide the
acquisition workforce and its industry partners with an online, instant reference
to best business practices and supporting policies, statutes, and lessons learned.
It complements DOD Directive 5000.1 and DOD Instruction 5000.2 by proposing
how acquisition managers can implement the policies established in the documents.
The Defense Acquisition Guidebook is now available on the Internet at http://akss.dau.mil/DAG.
JFCOM’S JOINT NATIONAL
CAPABILITY MOVES FORWARD
The U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) has announced that the Joint National
Training Capability (JNTC) has reached its initial operational capability following
four successful training events last year.
The centerpiece of the Department of Defense’s plan to transform joint
training, the JNTC will create a networked collection of training sites and
nodes that will meet the training needs of both combatant commanders and
the armed services. It will offer a spectrum of training environments, including
live (live forces using real equipment), virtual simulation (real people
simulators), and constructive simulation (computer simulations) training
The JNTC will provide training at four levels—
• Horizontal, which synchronizes training at the service-to-service level.
• Vertical, which coordinates training of a service branch with a higher
component and a lower service branch.
• Integration, in which participants train in a joint context to improve
• Functional, which provides a joint training environment for functional
and complex warfighting.
Last year’s four training events were the Western Range Complex Horizontal
Training Event 04–1 in January; Combined Joint Task Force Exercise 04–2,
an integration event in June that included forces from Canada, France, Germany,
Great Britain, The Netherlands, Norway, and Peru; Determined Promise 04, a
vertical event in August that involved the U.S. Northern Command, the Department
of Homeland Security, and local fire and emergency response agencies; and Joint
Readiness Training Center/Air Warrior II 04–09, another horizontal
event in August that incorporated virtual and constructive simulation capabilities.
The JNTC is scheduled to achieve full operational capability by 2009.
in 2007, the assault kitchen will provide a better
way to feed company-sized military units in the field.
ASSAULT KITCHEN OFFERS
FASTER FIELD FEEDING
The assault kitchen (AK) developed by the Food Service Equipment Team at the
Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts, offers a way to provide
hot meals quickly to forward-deployed units. Beginning in 2007, the Army will
use the AK to feed company-sized units in the field instead of the current kitchen,
company-level field feeding (KCLFF).
The AK consists of a high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) and
trailer packed with equipment that either eliminates, transfers, or replaces
the separate KCLFF components with a mobile platform that holds all of its components.
Because of the lengthy setup time involved, frontline troops often elect to take
only certain components of the KCLFF when they deploy. Included in the AK are
six insulated beverage containers, three pan carriers to keep food trays warm,
five insulated food containers, a 5-gallon fuel can, a fire extinguisher, a utensil
box, a tray-ration heater to prepare unitized group ration heat-and-serve tray
packs or number 10 food-service cans, and a maintenance kit for the tray-ration
The towed trailer carries eight water cans, an ice chest,
three tables, cargo netting to hold tray-pack boxes, stock
pots, a cradle for preparing hot beverages,
and an awning to cover the serving area during bad weather.
The AK’s tray-ration heater operates on common battlefield fuels and draws
electricity generated from the HMMWV through a mounted power inverter. Its portable,
stainless steel water tank heats up to 18 tray packs, 15 number 10 food service
cans, or a combination of the two in 30 to 45 minutes. Unlike the KCLFF’s
open-flame burners, which cannot be moved while in operation, the AK can offers
a heat-on-the-move capability. Setup by two cooks takes as little as 10 minutes,
and packing up is equally fast.
The Food Service Equipment Team plans to refine the system and complete additional
testing during the next 2 years. Current plans call for the Army, the Marine
Corps, and, potentially, the Air Force to combine their requirements for the
AK and tray-ration heater into one economical production contract.
AIR SHIPMENTS NOW
CONSOLIDATED BY DLA
The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) collaborated with the Air Mobility Command
last summer to improve their processes for packaging and transporting military
cargo. All Department of Defense small packages and depot shipments originated
and controlled by DLA now are sent directly to DLA consolidation and containerization
points (CCPs) and prepared for shipment there. This marks a significant change
in the way business is conducted.
In the past, many small packages from many sources would arrive at an aerial
port, where they were held until they could be sorted, combined, and palletized.
Shipments now are arriving at the aerial port ready for air shipment.
This change in procedure was conceived by General John W. Handy, Commander
of the U.S. Transportation Command and the Air Mobility Command. General Handy’s
plan included moving the processing of shipments from the aerial port to DLA
CCPs and having the CCPs load information about shipments into computer tracking
systems before releasing them. Computer systems for tracking shipments are
being integrated, with information entered at the CCPs. DLA also has completed
its plan for processing direct vendor delivery shipments at the CCPs instead
of at aerial ports.
Brigadier General Loren M. Reno, the Air Mobility Command Director of Logistics,
described the change in procedures as significant process changes that increase
the speed and predictability of warfighter sustainment support and improve
visibility of support earlier in the pipeline.
The DLA Office of Operations Research and Resource Analysis is developing a
tool to predict the number of pallets that will flow from a CCP to an aerial
port over a 48- to 96-hour period. This capability will allow the aerial ports
to schedule their workloads and could be used by the Tanker Airlift Control
Center to forecast and schedule use of air transports.
|Statement of Ownership,
Management, and Circulation
(required by 39 U.S.C. 3685).
The name of the publication is Army Logistician, an official
publication, published bimonthly by Headquarters, U.S.
Army Combined Arms Support Command, for Headquarters, Department
of the Army, at the U.S. Army Logistics Management College
(ALMC), Fort Lee, Virginia. Editor is Janice W. Heretick,
ALMC, Fort Lee, VA 23801-1705. Extent and nature of circulation:
the figures that follow are average numbers of copies of
each issue for the preceding 12 months for the categories
Total paid circulation, sold through Government Printing
Requested distribution by mail, carrier, or other means:
Total distribution: 23,853.
Copies not distributed in above manner: 125.
Actual number of copies of a single issue published nearest
to the filing date: 26,213.
I certify that the statements made above by me are correct
Janice W. Heretick, 19 August 2004.