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The establishment of the Logistics branch became effective 1 January. The new branch unites commissioned officers in the grades of captain through colonel.

According to the Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff, G–4, Lieutenant General Ann E. Dunwoody, “The establishment of the Logistics branch . . . promotes the development of multiskilled logisticians, capable of anticipating requirements, planning, integrating, and executing all types of deployment and sustainment activities that enable our Nation’s forces to initiate and sustain full-spectrum operations. As a result of Army transformation and modularity, Army logistics has shifted from a functional to a multifunctional focus. The reduction of functional logistics commands and the increase of multifunctional logistics commands at all levels make this a natural evolution for Army logisticians.”

Major General Mitchell H. Stevenson, the commanding general of the Army Combined Arms Support Command, observed, “In the 21st century, we need logistics officers who are multifunctional—officers not just focused on particular fields in logistics, but who are competent in all those fields.

“No longer is it enough to be skilled in one particular area. We have got to be good across the board. And the more senior you get, the more we are going to focus you on enterprise organizations—where you are thinking not in terms of what is going on in your particular area of operation, but knowing how the entire supply chain works. You’ll need to understand the effects of one part of the chain on another part of the chain.”

The Army decided to begin multifunctional training at the grade of captain because that is the level at which their assignments require them to have broader capabilities than provided by their functional branch training. “What we find is that by the time you make full colonel, about 75 percent of the positions in the Army call for multifunctional expertise,” said Major General Stevenson. “At the grade of captain, that number is already at about 50 percent.”

Training for officers in the Logistics Branch will take place at Fort Lee, Virginia. Under the base realignment and closure process, the Ordnance Schools at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, and the Transportation School at Fort Eustis, Virginia, will relocate to Fort Lee, which is already home of the Quartermaster School.

For more information on the Logistics branch, see the interview with Major General Stevenson on page 1 and the July–August 2007 issue of Army Logistician.


A new Army Reserve unit is being created to provide the expertise available from three Department of Defense organizations to support sustained contingency operations. The Army Reserve Sustainment Command Troop Program Unit (ARSC TPU) will consist of Army Reserve Soldiers drawn from the Army Materiel Command (AMC); the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASAALT); and the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). They will constitute a cross-trained, modular unit that will be able to deploy or mobilize as needed to support troops in the field.

The establishment of the ARSC TPU will further the Army’s goal of transforming the Army Reserve from a strategic reserve to an operational force. At the stand-up ceremony for the ARSC TPU in November, Major General Harry J. Phillips, the commander of the 377th Theater Sustainment Command, stated that the ARSC TPU will “capture AMC support along with DCMA support and ASAALT support in one unique organization, all focused on providing sustainment support to the warfighter, [which] is in perfect keeping with the mission we have to transform the Army Reserve into an operational, functional reserve . . .”

The ARSC TPU, headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, will consist of 383 Soldiers under the operational control of AMC headquarters at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and the administrative control of the 377th Theater Sustainment Command at Belle Chasse, Louisiana. It will have subordinate elements stationed at various AMC, ASAALT, and DCMA locations throughout the United States.

The unit will be fully activated by September 2009.


In December, the Army announced stationing and force structure plans geared to meet the President’s plan to increase the Army’s strength by 74,200 Solders, 65,000 of whom will be active-duty Soldiers, by 2010. Based on the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Act of 2005 decisions, the plan ensures growth capacity not only for the additional Soldiers but also for possible future Army expansion. It takes into account rail, air, and port systems needed to move troops.

The stationing plan includes six infantry brigade combat teams (BCTs), eight active-component support brigades, and other, variously sized combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) units. Support brigade plans include—

  • Activating an expeditionary sustainment command headquarters at Fort Lewis, Washington, and a sustainment brigade at Fort Hood, Texas, in fiscal year (FY) 2011.
  • Activating a maneuver enhancement brigade at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, in FY 2009.
  • Moving a maneuver enhancement brigade to Fort Richardson, Alaska, in FY 2010.
  • Restationing a maneuver enhancement brigade to Fort Drum, New York, in FY 2013.

Approximately 30,000 CS and CSS Soldiers will be stationed throughout the United States and overseas to support the six BCTs and eight support brigades.

The plan will enable construction of new facilities, limit the use of temporary relocatable facilities, and permit necessary maintenance and repair of existing facilities. The goal of the plan is to bring the Army’s stretched forces back into balance. It will greatly aid in improving Soldier and family readiness during this era of constant conflict.


The Army Materiel Command (AMC) has activated a new organization to support the Department of Defense’s Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) program. The U.S. Army Element, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives, is structured as an AMC separate reporting activity. The AWCA program formerly was aligned with the Army Chemical Materials Agency.

The AWCA program was created by Congress to develop alternatives to incineration technology for destroying assembled chemical weapons. Successful demonstration of alternatives has shifted the program’s focus to managing the design and construction of neutralization pilot plants at Pueblo Chemical Depot, Colorado, and Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky.


Revised Property Book Unit Supply Enhanced (PBUSE) Survival Guides have been prepared by students in Warrant Officer Advanced Course 001–2008. The new guides have a new format that provides easier reading, including “Chief’s helpful hints” and changes from the recent PBUSE software update (1CP 6.2, September 2007), and have new sections such as “An Overview of the Requisition Process.”
The guides are not designed to replace regulations and software end-user manuals but to provide a tool, which is based on the experience of those who have used it before, to help the user use the system and the regulations that guide it. The guides can be accessed on line as follows—


The commander of the 78th Signal Battalion at Camp Zama, Japan, invited all Soldiers, Department of the Army civilians, contractors, and local national employees to participate in the battalion’s Army Readiness Assessment Program (ARAP) debriefing in 2007. This marked the first time that an entire battalion was included in this process, which was conducted by video teleconference.

The ARAP is a 63-question assessment that captures a unit’s posture on command and control, standards of performance, accountability, and risk management. This process gives unit members and employees the opportunity to inform the battalion commander about what is happening within the organization. The information gathered there allows battalion commanders to address the root causes of accidental loss by focusing on the organization’s safety climate and culture.

Since the inception of the ARAP, more than 2,690 battalion commanders (1,837 Active Army, 180 Army National Guard, and 673Army Reserve) have registered for the assessment. Assessments involved 853,321 service members, with 343,482 (40 percent) completing assessments.


The Long War Occasional Series Paper 23, The Other End of the Spear: The Tooth-to-Tail Ratio (T3R) in Modern Military Operations, by John J. McGrath. Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: 2007.

This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the tooth-to-tail ratio (the proportion of combat troops to noncombat troops) in major Army deployments since World War I. The author finds that the tooth-to-tail ratio has declined since World War II as the percentage of deployed forces assigned to perform logistics functions and life and base support functions has increased. During the current deployment in Iraq, the proportion of combat forces has been only 25 percent of the total deployed force. The author discusses possible reasons for this trend, including the changing nature of warfare; technological developments, especially the introduction of digital communications; and the increasing use of civilian contractors on the battlefield. The full paper can be accessed at http://usacac.army.mil/CAC/csi/RandP/OP23.pdf.


Following a recent unexploded ordnance (UXO) accident that claimed the life of a Soldier, the Defense Environmental and Information Exchange has reminded Soldiers to be cautious when encountering unidentified objects, as they could be U.S. or foreign military munitions. Munitions, including small-arms ammunition, projectiles, cartridges, bombs, rockets, pyrotechnics, grenades, blasting caps, fuzes, simulators, and raw explosives, may not be easily recognized as UXO. The BLU–97/B combined effects bomb, for example, resembles a caulk tube or a soda can.

When encountering UXO, always follow the “3Rs” of explosive safety—

  • Recognize the munition.
  • Retreat from the munition. Do not touch or disturb it, but move carefully away, walking out of the area by the same path that it was entered.
  • Report the munition and its location.

For more information on UXO safety, visit the Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange’s UXO Safety Education Program website at www.denix.osd.mil/uxosafety.


International Transport Logistics (ITL) Technologies, Inc., of Jacksonville, Florida, has developed two systems—the Sain Beam System (SBS) and CONTRAIL—that will allow the Department of Defense (DOD) to expand its use of American-flag container ships for transporting roll-on/roll-off equipment. With these systems, container ships will be able to transport much more of the equipment normally associated with a DOD force package than can be transported now.

Many of DOD’s items, such as Strykers, high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles, and mine resistant ambush protected vehicles, will not fit in the standard 96-inch-wide container; they require a 102-inch-wide container. The SBS enables container vessels to transport 102-inch containers in a more space- and cost-efficient manner. To allow stacking of 102-inch containers atop 96-inch containers, SBS beams are placed athwart a layer of 96-inch-wide containers. Twist locks secure the beams to the 96-inch containers, and similar twist locks secure the 102-inch containers to the beams, which are placed side by side.

Items too large for the 102-inch container can be placed into a CONTRAIL. A CONTRAIL is an easy-to-load and easy-to-handle heavy-duty platform that enables over-sized and over-height equipment to be placed in a container-like envelope. CONTRAILs can be 10, 12, 14, and 16 feet wide and 40, 45, and 48 feet long. The 40-foot CONTRAIL was designed to stow below decks. All others can be stowed on deck using SBS beams. Most military equipment will fit in the standard 12-foot by 40-foot CONTRAIL. Vehicles are driven into the CONTRAIL using a built-in ramp. Once the vehicle is secured, the CONTRAIL is loaded aboard the ship using standard gantry cranes. With collapsible end posts, the CONTRAILs can be folded when empty for compact storage.

One distinct characteristic of this program is that DOD will not purchase, account for, or maintain these systems. Their use will be requested of the carrier as a part of the liner service contract.


The Army Materiel Command’s Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has become the first Federal Government organization to receive the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.

The Baldrige Award, named for a former Secretary of Commerce, recognizes small and large businesses and healthcare, educational, and nonprofit organizations that have achieved excellence in organizational performance. Organizations are evaluated in the areas of leadership; strategic planning; customer and market focus; measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; workforce focus; process management; and results. The addition of a new award category for nonprofit organizations this year allowed Government agencies to compete for the award.

ARDEC is 1 of 5 recipients of the award for 2007, chosen from among 84 candidates, and 1 of 72 organizations that have received the award since its creation in 1988.

ARDEC is the Army’s principal researcher, developer, and sustainer of current and future military armaments systems.


Tooele Army Depot, Utah, is moving low-demand munitions to former chemical storage sites at nearby Deseret Chemical Depot in order to free storage space at Tooele for high-demand training and warfighting materials. Tooele has had the highest occupancy rate of any ammunition storage site in the country. Storage constraints have limited Tooele’s ability to store and ship items in high demand for combat operations.

The movement of munitions from Tooele to Deseret will continue in tandem with the ongoing destruction of chemical munitions at Deseret until all Deseret sites are filled with conventional ammunition. The chemical demilitarization effort should be completed in about 6 years.


Field Manual (FM) 4–90.7, Stryker Brigade Combat Team Logistics (10 September 2007), provides doctrinal guidance for the organization and operation of a Stryker brigade combat team’s (SBCT’s) brigade support battalion. SBCT logistics support is unique because the SBCT lacks forward support companies, which are employed in all of the other types of brigade combat teams. The field manual details the operation of the maintenance, medical, and distribution companies and discusses augmentation from other units, an important aspect of SBCT logistics.

FM 4–20.108, Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment: Rigging Military Utility Vehicles
(10 September 2007), provides instructions for rigging the following configurations for airdrop: one 80-centimenter minibike, one or two 250- to 300-cubic centimeter motorcycles, one 350-cubic centimeter Yamaha four-wheeled quad-runner on a combat expendable platform, and one 500-cublic centimeter Polaris four-wheeled quad-runner on a combat expendable platform. This FM supersedes FM 4–20.108 (7 May 2004) and FM 10–500–77 (1 February 2000).

FM 4–20.121, Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment: Rigging Tractors and Tractor Dozers (6 September 2007), presents doctrine for rigging D5B tractor-dozers, John Deere 450G LT full-tracked commercial bulldozers, deployable universal combat earthmovers, T200 Bobcat compact track loaders, 420D and 410 backhoe loaders, small emplacement excavators, 277 multi-terrain loaders, and A/S 37U3 all-purpose remote transporters. This FM supersedes FM 4–20.121 (20 March 2003) and FM 10–539 (29 May 1984).

FM 4–20.142, Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment: Rigging Loads for Special Operations (19 September 2007), describes rigging procedures for the high-speed low-level aerial delivery system (HSLLADS), the inflated combat rubber raiding craft, the rigging alternate method zodiac (RAMZ) in an A–22 container for low-velocity airdrop, Naval special warfare rigid inflatable boat for low-velocity airdrop, advanced rescue crafts rigged on a combat expendable platform for low-velocity airdrop, and wind-supported aerial delivery system Snow Goose unmanned aerial vehicle. This FM supersedes FM 10–542 (7 October 1987).

FM 4–20.152, Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment: Rigging Dragon and Javelin Missiles (6 September 2007), provides rigging instructions that cover Dragon and Javelin antitank and assault missiles for low-velocity airdrop. This FM supersedes FM 1–552 (1982).

FM 3–34.214, Explosives and Demolitions (11 July 2007), describes explosive and demolition procedures that support combat operations and provides instructions for charge placement, bridge demolition, and demolition training and safety.



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