The President’s budget for the Army for
fiscal year 2007 proposes a healthy increase of 12.7 percent
over the amount Congress appropriated for fiscal year 2006.
The Army’s budget request of $111.8 billion represents
25.4 percent of the Department of Defense (DOD) request of
$439.3 billion for fiscal year 2007. (Figures in this article
do not include supplemental appropriations for fiscal year
2006 or supplemental requests that will be submitted for fiscal
The Army’s spending plans are designed to achieve its
• Winning the long war. [“Long war” is
the term the Department of Defense uses to refer to the Global
War on Terrorism.]
Sustaining the all-volunteer force.
Accelerating the modernization strategy for the Future Force.
Accelerating business transformation and process improvements.
Meeting these goals requires the Army to continue its conversion
to a modular force, create the ability to sustain a force
that is more joint and expeditionary, insert promising technologies,
implement DOD’s Quadrennial Defense Review [see next
article], develop leaders and Soldiers who are multi-skilled “pentathletes,” modernize
force-protection systems, execute the Army Campaign Plan
and the Army Force Generation Model, and improve the Army’s
strategic footprint through the Integrated Global Presence
Strategy (IGPBS) and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
process. (IGPBS governs the evaluation of overseas installations
and facilities for closure and realignment.) Under BRAC
2005, the Army will close 12 Active component and 175 Army
Reserve installations, 8 Active component leased facilities,
and 211 Army National Guard facilities. (The National Guard
closings are contingent on agreements with State governors).
In support of major Army initiatives, the budget includes
approximately $6.4 billion in investments to support the
conversion to a modular force. A total of $3.746 billion
is allotted for continued development and demonstration
of the Future Combat Systems, including future non-line-of-sight
fires. The budget includes a tripling in BRAC-related spending
to $3,659 billion, including $883 million for IGPBS activities.
Spending requests for fiscal year 2007 for the major budget categories, compared
to actual fiscal year 2006 appropriations, are as follows—
Military personnel: $42.637 billion, up $2.059 billion, or 5.1 percent.
Operation and maintenance: $32.040 billion, up $1.991, or 6.6 percent.
Procurement: $16.841 billion, up $5.821 billion, or 52.8 percent.
Research, development, test, and evaluation: $10.856 billion, down $149.2 million,
or 1.4 percent.
Military construction: $2.700 billion, up $292.6 million, or 12.2 percent.
Family housing: $1.272 billion, down $52.5 million, or 4 percent.
The fiscal year 2007 budget aircraft procurement proposal requests $740 million
to acquire 38 UH–60 Black Hawk utility helicopters; $620 million to modify
CH–47 Chinook cargo helicopters; $199 million to purchase 39 light utility
helicopters; $795 million to upgrade and modify AH–64 Apache attack helicopters;
and $9 million that will more than double spending on aircraft spare parts.
Other procurement requests include $796 million for 100 Stryker vehicles, including
65 mobile gun systems, 13 nuclear-biological-chemical reconnaissance vehicles,
and 22 command vehicles; $33 million for 115 sets of Stryker reactive tiles;
$583 million for 3,091 up-armored high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicles;
and $695 million for 4,119 trucks in the family of medium tactical vehicles.
The Army also wants significant procurement increases for maintenance equipment
(from $11 million to $58 million), construction equipment (from $53 million
to $147 million), generators (from $34 million to $69 million), and materials-handling
equipment (from $4 million to $21 million).
DEFENSE REVIEW SETS VISION FOR FUTURE
The Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) released by the Department
of Defense (DOD) in February calls for DOD and the armed
services to continue the transformation of military capabilities
and forces that has been unfolding since 2001. The 2006 QDR—the
first of the congressionally mandated studies to be performed
in wartime—serves as a blueprint for setting DOD’s
direction for the next 20 years.
The QDR is based on the National Defense Strategy published
in March 2005. The strategy requires DOD to continue to adjust
its capabilities to meet a wider range of challenges while
maintaining its dominance in traditional warfare. These
new challenges include irregular warfare waged by nonstate
combatants; terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction;
and nontraditional, asymmetric challenges to U.S. military
dominance and power-projection capabilities.
The QDR defines “two fundamental imperatives for the
Department of Defense—
Continuing to reorient the Department’s capabilities
and forces to be more agile in this time of war, to prepare
for wider asymmetric challenges and to hedge against uncertainty
over the next 20 years.
Implementing enterprise-wide changes to ensure that organizational
structures, processes and procedures effectively support
its strategic direction.”
In reorienting U.S. forces and capabilities, the QDR calls
for continuing the evolutionary progress of recent years
toward improved joint warfighting capabilities; forces that
are lighter, more agile, and more expeditionary; and increased
capabilities to project forces quickly around the world.
The QDR emphasizes the need to adjust the overseas U.S.
military posture to reflect post-Cold War strategic realities;
to increase use of Special Operations Forces and multilateral
and bilateral partnerships; and to foster and improve information
management and connectivity, precision weaponry, and intelligence
The QDR vision for ground forces states that the Army and
Marine Corps “will continue to take on more of the
tasks performed by today’s special operations forces.
The result will be a new breed of warrior able to move more
easily between disparate mission sets while preserving their
depth of skill in primary specialties. Future warriors will
be as proficient in irregular operations, including counterinsurgency
and stabilization operations, as they are today in high-intensity
combat. They will be modular in structure at all levels,
largely self-sustaining, and capable of operating both in
traditional formations as well as disaggregating into smaller,
autonomous units.” The QDR endorses the Army’s
transformation of units and headquarters into modular designs
and the incorpora-tion of Future Combat Systems technologies
into modular units
through a spiral development approach.
A key effort in implementing Defense business transformation
is DOD’s move to a capabilities-based logistics system.
The QDR stresses the need to achieve greater visibility of
the costs and performance of supply chain logistics, find
ways to measure im-provements in performance, and develop “realistic
and defendable strategic performance targets for fo-cused
logistics capabilities to guide both capital investment
and process improvement.” Important initiatives in
improving logistics include the designation of a single deployment
process owner (the U.S. Transportation Command), the use
of active and passive radio frequency identification technologies,
and “the implementation of continuous process improvement
tools like Lean, Six Sigma and Performance Based Logistics.”
LOGISTICS INFORMATION WAREHOUSE FIELDED
The Army Materiel Command Logistics Support Activity (LOGSA)
has made significant progress to-ward creating a single,
authoritative source of logistics information for the Army.
In January, LOGSA fielded the Logistics Information Warehouse
(LIW) Initial Op-erational Capability (IOC), which provides
a common point of entry to the existing Web capabilities
of the Logistics Integrated Data Base (LIDB), the Integrated
Logistics Analysis Program (ILAP), and other LOGSA tools.
The LIW IOC is the first step in the Army-directed merger
of all LIDB and ILAP capabilities. The merger began in early
2005 with transfer of ILAP program management authority to
the LOGSA commander.
The LIW main Web page, which replaced the WebLOG Web page,
simplifies access to former Web-LOG tools, restructures the
LOGSA System Access Request (SAR) process, and provides
single-sign-on access to the full capabilities of both WebLIDB
and ILAP. With the fielding of the LIW IOC, WebLIDB and ILAP
are accessible only through the LIW Web site. Forward ILAP
sites will be converted to “LIW Forward” sites.
A one-time user name conversion process transfers all existing
LIDB and ILAP access privileges to the LIW. A single login
based on the user’s Army Knowledge Online (AKO) account
provides access to the LIW Web page (https://liw.logsa.army.mil).
Army-affiliated LIW users are required to use their AKO login
to continue current access or obtain new access. Non-Army
affiliated users can obtain a local non-AKO login.
TWO MORE CIVIL SUPPORT TEAMS CERTIFIED
The Department of Defense has certified two additional Weapons
of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams (WMD–CSTs), bringing
the total number of certified teams to 36. In February, the
Wisconsin and Nebraska National Guard teams were certified.
These teams are among the 12 authorized in the Defense Appropriations
Act for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Two others, the New Jersey and
Indiana National Guard teams, were certified last November.
The remaining 8 FY 2004-authorized teams and 11 more that
were authorized in FY 2005 are expected to be certified by
March 2007. The U.S. Congress mandated that DOD would provide
at least one team in each state, territory, and the District
WMD–CSTs are designed to deploy rapidly, assist local
first-responders in determining the nature of an attack, provide
medical and technical advice, and pave the way for the arrival
of follow-on state and Federal response assets.
RAPID EQUIPPING FORCE
SPEEDS HIGH-TECH EQUIPMENT TO TROOPS
An innovative acquisition concept is proving suc-cessful in getting high-tech
equipment into the hands of Soldiers much faster than the traditional acquisition
process. The Army’s Rapid Equipping Force (REF) identifies an immediate
warfighting need and seeks out the best way to meet it. The REF receives operational
guidance from the Department of the Army G–3 and reports directly to the
Vice Chief of Staff of the Army.
Rather than going to the drawing board to come up with a solution to a problem,
the REF evaluates what is already available commercially or in the production
pipeline. Partnering with military services, military and commercial laboratories,
and private companies helps fill critical equipment requests.
By using off-the-shelf technology, even if it needs modifications to meet military
requirements, the REF is able to get equipment to the troops in weeks rather
than months or years. In several instances, requests have been filled within
enter a building after a MARCBOT (center) found
no improvised explosive devices in the area.
Among the equipment procured through the REF’s
efforts is the multifunction agile remote-controlled robot
(MARCBOT), a small, wheeled robot with a video camera that
checks for improvised explosive devices while keeping troops
at a safe distance. Another more recent but less sophisticated
acquisition is green laser pointers. The battery-operated pointers
are about 50 times brighter than the familiar red laser pointers
and are visible in dark conditions. They have proven to be
effective in dissuading aggressive drivers in Iraq. In the
past, bright spotlights shined at drivers did little to stop
them from speeding through checkpoints. However, aggressive
driving has declined by 60 to 80 percent since the new devices
The REF staff travels to Iraq and Afghanistan seeking feedback
and visits military hospitals to talk to wounded troops in
search of information that will improve equipment sent to
the field as a result of REF initiatives. The REF works with
vendors to make improvements in future equipment that incorporate
Soldier feedback and observations made at the tactical level.
PASSES FIRST TEST
A key component of the Army’s efforts to develop a
network-centric, knowledge-based warfare capability, the
Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN–T), recently
completed its first test successfully at Fort Huachuca, Arizona.
WIN–T is designed to allow commanders and Soldiers
to communicate with each other from remote locations dispersed
across the battlefield. In essence, it will create a mobile
network environment that allows even small groups of Soldiers
to send and receive information while on the move. It will
correct communications problems experienced during Operation
Iraqi Freedom in operating on the move and communicating
over great distances (beyond the line of sight of the existing
Mobile Subscriber Equipment). WIN–T will provide seamless
and secure voice, video, imagery, and data communications
that will enable decisive combat actions. It will connect
Future Combat Systems (FCS) vehicles beyond the line of sight
and link those vehicles to distant units and command and
control centers. WIN–T also will interface with the
Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), which will operate in
individual ground vehicles.
WIN–T is a component of LandWarNet, which is the Army’s
portion of the Department of Defense’s Global Information
Grid (GIG) and the Army’s counterpart to the Air Force’s
ConstellationNet and the Navy’s FORCENet. GIG is DOD’s
foundation initiative to create a seamless, secure, and interconnected
information environment. LandWarNet will provide networks
to the Active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve
forces and the sustaining base.
While the first test of WIN–T took place on the ground
at Fort Huachuca, it also included the use of beyond-line-of-sight
network connections to Fort Hood, Texas, and Fort Monmouth,
The estimated cost of the completed and fielded WIN–T
is $10 billion, with initial fielding planned for 2008.
FCS TEST SITE ANNOUNCED
The Army announced in January that Fort Bliss, Texas, will be the location
for the Evaluation Brigade Combat Team (EBCT) that will test and evaluate Future
Combat Systems (FCS) technology. Fort Bliss was selected because of its proximity
to White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, which has the land, airspace, and
facilities needed to train Soldiers to train and evaluate and test FCS capabilities.
The FCS program consists of 18 manned and unmanned systems connected by a
secure network designed to enhance Soldiers’ capabilities. It is the
core of the Army’s modernization program.
The EBCT’s mission will be to evaluate FCS operational concepts while
training Soldiers on FCS equipment in realistic environments and to provide
continuous feedback that will allow the Army to determine what adjustments
and improvements are needed. The EBCT, which will be created from a 1st Armored
Division heavy brigade combat team, will be ready to begin FCS evaluation in
June 2007. The first fully equipped FCS unit is expected to be operational
COMPRESSED MEALS WILL OFFER
QUALITY AND PORTABILITY
The Natick Soldier Center’s Combat Feeding Directorate has developed
a lighter, leaner individual ration that can be carried inside Future Combat
Compressed meals (CMs) are one-third smaller in size and weight than the conventional
meals, ready to eat (MREs), but offer the same fresh-food flavor and calories.
Smaller packaging, less stringent storage and handling requirements, and dehydrated
entrées account for the CMs’ weight and volume savings. Because
rations are lighter and more compact, more meals can be packed together, thereby
decreasing the frequency of replenishment and reducing the overall logistics
footprint in theater.
Oregon Freeze Dry, Inc., of Albany, Oregon, manufactured the CMs according
to specifications provided by Combat Feeding Directorate food scientists.
Some components currently found in MREs, such as crackers and Hooah bars, are
included in the CMs. Shelf life of the CMs can extend well beyond the required
minimum 3 years at 80 degrees Fahrenheit or 6 months at 100 degrees with
no degradation of quality.
officer of the 840th Distribution Deployment Support
Battalion examines a cargo container at Logistics
Support Area (LSA) Anaconda in Iraq. The battalion
has been tracking down borrowed commercial cargo
containers and replacing them with Government-owned
thereby saving millions of dollars in monthly detention
charges, or late fees, assessed by commercial carriers.
Because not enough Army-owned containers were available
to deploy all the equipment needed for Operation
Iraqi Freedom 1, commercial cargo carriers loaned
containers to the Army. After a grace period, the
charging the detention fees. When the battalion arrived
at LSA Anaconda last year, these fees were running
over $10 million a month. Using a Web-based program
called Container Management Software
Tool and battalion inventorying teams augmented by
personnel from the 184th Transportation Company,
Mississippi Army National Guard, the battalion found
carrier-owned containers. In January, detention charges
were down to $377,880 for all of Iraq.
In May 2005, an evaluation team from Natick
visited Fort Lewis, Washington, to gather comments on the new
meals from a focus group of Stryker brigade
Soldiers. The CM menus included meat and vegetarian selections and egg entrées.
The Soldiers felt the entrées were a great improvement over those
in MREs. “The Soldiers were asking for more coffee and caffeinated
beverages because they said that’s what kept them alive in Iraq,” said
project officer Joel McCassie. We’re looking at different options,
such as cappuccino and cocoa.”
To prepare an entrée, a Soldier must cut open the CM pouch, break
apart food clumps, add 12 ounces of boiling water, stir thoroughly, fold
top down to retain heat and wait 10 minutes. The meal will then be ready
to eat. Although the Soldiers praised the taste and compactness of the meals,
they questioned the availability of the hot water needed to prepare hot meals
in the Stryker vehicle and the time needed to prepare the ration in a tactical
environment. A separate project that involves several military organizations
is exploring options that could solve the hot water shortage.
The Fort Lewis focus groups confirmed that the CM project was on the right
track. The next step will be to conduct a field evaluation. Initial fielding
could begin late in 2007.