The Army’s senior leaders have released
a paper summarizing the intellectual foundations for the profound
changes that the Army is now pursuing. The paper, “Serving
a Nation at War: A Campaign Quality Army with Joint and Expedition-ary
Capabilities,” emphasizesthe need for transformation
even as the Nation is fighting a war in a new strategic environment.
That environment is essen- tially “a war of ideas” against
non-state adversaries violently opposed to Western values.
As summarized by Acting Secretary of the Army Les Brownlee
and Army Chief of Staff General Peter J. Schoomaker—
The single most significant component of our new strategic
reality is that . . . this war will be a protracted one. Whereas
for most of our lives the default condition has been peace,
now our default expectation must be conflict. This new strategic
context is the logic for reshaping the Army to be an Army of
campaign quality with joint and expeditionary capabilities.
The lessons learned in two-and-a-half years of war have already
propelled a wide series of changes in the Army and across the
Joint team. The Army always has changed and always will. But
an army at war must change the way it changes.
The Army is adapting to this new environment by seeking to
create a new “mindset” that is both joint and expeditionary.
Accordingly, the Army is working with the other armed services
to achieve “joint interdependence”—
Interdependence is more than just interoperability, the assurance
that service capabilities can work together smoothly. It is
even more than integration to improve their collective efficiency
and effectiveness. Joint interdependence purposefully combines
service capabilities to maximize their total complementary
and reinforcing effects, while minimizing their relative vulnerabilities.
The Army will organize for the new realities by developing more modular units
and headquarters. At the same time, it will stabilize the force by increasing
unit cohesion. The Army also will adjust the mix of Active and Reserve component
forces, with some high-demand, low-density capabilities shifting to the Active
Joint sustainment will be the hallmark of Army and Defense logistics—
All the services have key interdependencies in the logistics arena and will experience
even more in an expeditionary environment. There is a pressing demand for a joint
end-to-end logistics structure that permits reliable support of distributed operations
in which deployment, employment, and sustainment are simultaneous
. . . . all services [will have to] fully embrace joint logistics, eliminate
gaps in logistics functions, and reduce overlapping support.
To sustain an expeditionary force, the Army must develop an “effects-based
logistics capability” in which logistics support is linked to maneuver
capabilities. (See related story on page 2.) The Army will need to create—
• A distribution-based sustainment system.
• Army deployment and sustainment commands that can serve as the basis
joint logistics command and control elements.
• Better force protection of logistics installations and lines of communication.
• Fighting platforms that can be deployed
• The best possible individual equipment for
• An improved Army aviation fleet.
• Significant improvements in conducting
network-enabled operations” to increase actionable intelligence and situational
The full paper can be accessed at www.oft. osd.mil/library/library_files/document_376_JEC_
The Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Force
Transformation, in partnership
with a Washington-based company, Synergy Inc., is testing a prototype resupply
system that may help solve the type of resupply problems experienced
in the early days
of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The new resupply prototype views all military units—both
combat and support—as potential resuppliers for forward-deployed forces.
During the military’s rapid march to Baghdad, Iraq, early last year, logistics
trains found it difficult to keep up with the fast-moving combat troops. Necessary
maintenance and the delivery of urgently needed spare parts and supplies were
delayed as a result.
Resupply problems have heightened since asymmetric warfare has become the norm
for military engagements. Logistics systems that were designed to resupply units
engaged in force-on-force battles have difficulty supporting combat units that
terrorists and other unpredictable threats.
“The more we operate using our traditional processes, our traditional structures
and attrition-based [logistics] models, parts of our machinery are getting less
effective on the battlefield,” said Navy Captain Linda Lewandowski, who
heads the new Sense-and-Respond Logistics (SARL) project in the DOD Office of
The prototype being tested uses a version of SARL. When a field commander requests
more ammunition, for example, the logistics network will query all nearby combat
and support units to see where ammunition might be located. The units will respond,
either automatically or manually, and the system will decide which units can
best fill the order based on distance, time required, mission priority, and other
The prototype has gone through six limited technical assessments and was tested
in July by elements of the I and III Marine Expeditionary Forces of Marine Forces,
Pacific. According to Fred Czerner, Vice President of Technology Services at
Synergy, Inc., the experiment, although small in scale, will demonstrate the
system’s ability to sense a need and respond to it. Czerner believes that
a major exercise that is oriented specifically toward sense-and-respond concepts
and technologies will be conducted some time in the future. “Logistics
does not play in most of the exercises, wargames, and experiments today to any
large measure. Normally, it’s an operational result that you’re seeking,
and logistics sometimes gets in the way of doing an operational training event.”
The steep cultural learning curve involved in the logistics transformation effort
also has delayed larger DOD experiments. “The other reason for doing small
and . . . relatively simple [testing] is that’s what the culture can bear
right now,” Lewandowski said. “Can the technology do more? Yes.”
AMC OFFERS LESSONS LEARNED SYSTEM
To improve its support to soldiers, Army
civilians, and contractors and to the development of new technologies,
the Army Materiel
Command (AMC) has created an online system for recording
the critical observations and comments of personnel in the
field. Originally focused on lessons learned from Operations
Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, the new system—AMC
Lessons Learned (AMCLL)
— allows all Army personnel to submit their comments using a
Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) or Secure
Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) connection on any
outstanding materiel or logistics issue. Those with SIPRNET
access also can view the action plans and progress of proponent
agencies in finding adequate solutions to the challenges facing
warfighters and their civilian supporters.
Using a modified and expanded Joint Universal Lessons Learned
System (JULLS) format, the AMC Lessons Learned Team created
Web-based collection tools that gathered 267 separate observations
from across AMC from July to September 2003. These results
were presented to the AMC Lessons Learned Conference held in
September at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The team then grouped
similar observations into action plans. With many of these
action plans assigned to AMC proponents for development, the
entire command has been able to participate in developing future
doctrine and policy.
The NIPRNET and SIPRNET collection tools went live in January
2004. The AMC Lessons Learned Team has continued its collection
efforts on Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom planning and
on the execution of such programs as the Logistics Civil Augmentation
Program (LOGCAP), Army Pre-positioned Stocks (APS) quality
and sustainment, and contractors on the battlefield. The team
is working to expand the system’s scope by collecting
data on the Army’s equipment Reset program, AMC support
of Stryker combat vehicle deployment, AMC actions supporting
the Army’s transition to Unit of Action and Unit of Employment
modularity, and continuing support of contingency operations
overseas and at home.
AMC is seeking more input from military and civilian personnel
across the Army to expand on the project’s initial success.
The AMC G–3 has already begun to use the AMCLL system
to both evaluate and develop solutions to operational observations
and to reevaluate those solutions and action plans through
the use of data collected during subsequent AMC exercises.
Personnel may submit observations and comments based on their
field experiences and view the action plans and lessons learned
database on the SIPRNET connection at hqamc-web.army.smil.mil/
AMCLL/SecurityMsg.aspx. Those using the NIPRNET-based site
can contribute their observations by reaching the data collection
site at www.amc.army.mil/G3/AMC-LL/SecurityMsg.aspx. At this
time, only SIPRNET users may view the database and action plans.
For more information, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org or david.muhlenkamp
@us.army.mil or call (703) 806–9340
or –9341 (DSN 656–9340 or –9341).
CSS VSAT CONNECTS LOGISTICIANS
A prototype satellite communications system
promises to give forward-deployed combat service support (CSS)
units communications capabilities equal to those
used in garrison. The system, CSS Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), can
be operational within an hour of a unit’s arrival in the theater.
CSS VSAT, when used in connection with the Multi-Media Communications System
and the CSS Automated Information Systems Interface, provides worldwide voice,
video, and data communications capability for forward operating bases. With
this system, CSS units can share documents, process requisitions, conduct online
meetings, send and receive text messages, and use the system as a short-range
telephone. The system acts as a combat multiplier by increasing operational
readiness while reducing the downtime of combat systems.
Packaged in five transit cases, the VSAT system includes built-in global positioning
system receivers, a motorized satellite antenna, and a laptop computer that
runs the CSS VSAT software program. The
software enables the user to set up a satellite communications link and acquire
Non-secure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET) access almost anywhere
in the world by automatically orienting the antenna using a global positioning
system, determining which satellite will be used, configuring the modem, and
pointing the antenna.
The Army Product Manager for Defense Wide Transmission Systems (PM DWTS) developed
the CSS VSAT system using commercial off-the-shelf technology and fielded a
prototype of the system to the 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) (3ID) at Fort
Stewart, Georgia, in early May. The PM DWTS fielding team trained the soldiers
on how to assemble and operate CSS VSAT before they deployed to the National
Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, where they would test the
system. Once the division had the system up and operating at the NTC, the fielding
team went to each unit and added capabilities beyond the transmission of data.
These included text messaging, text conferencing, collaboration software, and
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) telephone capability. These capabilities
allowed soldiers to conduct meetings, request assistance, and confer with one
another without having to travel, saving them the time and effort of arranging
transportation and traveling, and increasing their safety by keeping them off
Major Geoff DeTingo, G–4 planner for 3ID, was very impressed with CSS
VSAT, saying, “This system is amazing. You want to talk performance indicators?
Generally speaking, on rotation, it’s 1 to 4 days before there are communications
and everybody’s talking. With VSATs, everybody was up on the first day
within hours. Over the first four days, more than 2,500 electronic parts requisitions
were sent via VSATs—more than double the normal requisition data flow.”
PM DWTS had previously fielded a limited number of the prototype CSS VSAT to
forward-deployed CSS units in Operation Iraqi Freedom, where the system also
received high marks. “The reliability and performance of the VSAT has
truly been extraordinary,” Chief Warrant Officer (W–2) Brian Wimmer,
automation management officer for the 4th Infantry Division in Iraq, said. “The
benefits of having dedicated VSAT resources are undeniable.” The fielding
of production terminals to support 3ID transformation is scheduled for completion
SDDC IMPROVES WEB SITE
FOR TRANSPORTATION CALCULATIONS
The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)
is making several improvements to the Defense Table of Official
Distances (DTOD) Web site. The DTOD program provides official
distance mileage calculations for Department of Defense (DOD)
activities worldwide. SDDC operates and maintains the DTOD
program for all of the armed services and Defense agencies.
DTOD mileage calculations support payments of temporary duty
(TDY) and permanent change of station (PCS) moves and movements
of DOD cargo and household goods. Commercial freight and household
goods carriers use DTOD mileage information to calculate their
The improvements to the DTOD Web site will allow users to—
• Change the font size initially shown for more comfortable viewing without
having to reconfigure their browser options or change Web pages.
• Ask questions through a new, dynamic help system that displays links
frequently asked questions (“FAQs”) and “Help Topics” on
every page of the Web site. These features will put answers and assistance on
the same page with the question.
• Access a new “Quick Trip” window that puts an authenticated
user one click away from obtaining a distance.
• Use a new “Route History” capability that saves the last
routes calculated for each user. Users can fill out the “Trip Entry Form” with
just one click if they are pulling the route from their individual route history.
This gives users greater flexibility for comparing routes and computing more
than one leg of a trip without needing to open multiple browsers.
• Transition more easily between regions and route types by using an enhanced “Trip
• Benefit from enhanced “Maps” support. Maps will be easier
to use because of “point-and-click” panning, removal of confusing
symbols on maps, and simplified directions that will make comparisons of directions
easier to perform.
SDDC expects to implement all of the enhancements by 1 October. The DTOD Web
site is at http://dtod.sddc.army.mil.
BDU REPLACEMENT INTRODUCED
After two decades as the Army’s standard
field clothing, the battledress uniform (BDU) will be replaced.
In June, the Army unveiled its successor, the
Army combat uniform (ACU), a new design based on input from noncommissioned
officers and enlisted soldiers. The wrinkle-free uniform with a digitized camouflage
pattern was field tested by Stryker brigade soldiers at Army training centers
and in Iraq.
The ACU incorporates 18 changes to the BDU, and the camouflage pattern was
changed to a green and sandy brown adaptation of the Marine Corps uniform digital
The ACU will consist of a blouse, trousers, moisture wicking t-shirt, and brown
combat boots. It will replace both versions of the BDU and the desert camouflage
uniform. Although the black beret will be the normal headgear for the ACU,
a matching patrol cap is available to be worn at the commander’s discretion.
The changes include—
• A mandarin collar that can be worn up or down.
• Rank insignia centered on the front of the jacket.
• Velcro for attaching the unit patch, skill tabs, and recognition devices.
• Zippered front closure that opens from the top and bottom.
• Elbow pouch for internal elbow pad inserts.
• Knee pouch for internal knee pad inserts.
• Drawstring leg tie.
• Tilted chest pockets with Velcro closure.
• Three-slot pen pocket on bottom of sleeve.
• Velcro sleeve cuff closure.
• Shoulder pockets with Velcro.
• Forward tilted cargo pockets.
• Integrated blouse bellows for increased upper body mobility.
• Integrated friend or foe identification square on both left and right
shoulder pocket flaps.
• Bellowed calf storage pocket on left and right leg.
• Moisture-wicking desert tan t-shirt.
• Patrol cap with double-thick bill and inter-
• Improved hot-weather desert boot or temperate-weather desert boot.
Each change was made for a specific purpose. For example, the bottom pockets
were removed from the jacket and placed on the shoulders so soldiers can access
them while wearing body armor. “This isn’t about a cosmetic redesign
of the uniform,” said Colonel John Norwood, the Project Manager for Clothing
and Individual Equipment at Program Executive Office Soldier. “It’s
a functionality change of the uniform that will improve the ability of soldiers
to execute their combat mission.”
The Army will begin fielding the ACU to deploying units in April 2005, with
a completion date of December 2007 for fielding to the entire Army. The ACU
will cost $88, which is $30 more than the BDU. However, since the ACU is made
of permanent press fabric, and soldiers will no longer have to pay to have
patches sewn on, uniform maintenance costs are expected to be lower than they
are for BDUs.
ARMY MODULARIZATION SCHEDULE SET
As the Army transforms, it is converting its active divisions to modular, brigade-plus-sized
units of action. The first division to complete this conversion was the 3d
Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Stewart, Georgia, which grew from
three brigade combat teams to four as it became a modular combat force. The
Army plans to convert the nine remaining divisions to units of action by
fiscal year 2007.
The conversions will be completed as follows: The 101st Airborne Division (Air
Assault) at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, will convert this fiscal year. In fiscal
year 2005, the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Carson, Colorado,
and the 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) at Fort Drum, New York, will
convert. The 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas, the 25th Infantry Division
(Light) at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, and the 82d Airborne Division at Fort
Bragg, North Carolina, will convert in fiscal year 2006. Pending funding and
approval by the Department of Defense, the 2nd Infantry Division in South Korea,
the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) in Wurzburg, Germany, and the 1st Armored
Division in Wiesbaden, Germany, are scheduled for conversion in fiscal year
The Army National Guard also will begin modularizing its brigade combat teams
into units of action, starting next year with three brigades. Six additional
National Guard brigades are slated for modularization each year between fiscal
years 2006 and 2010.
Modularization will affect about 100,000 positions. Many soldiers in less needed
Cold War specialties, such as field artillery and air defense, will have to
retrain for positions in greater demand today, such as infantrymen, military
police, civil affairs specialists, and truck drivers.
The modularization is the largest restructure the Army has made in 50 years.