As the Army proceeds with its transformation
to a modular force built for expeditionary
and joint operations, our various doctrinal building blocks must be reviewed and, quite frequently, revised to match the new operational reality. As part of this process, in April 2010 the Army released an updated Field Manual (FM) 1–0, Human Resources Support. Although the fundamentals of the human resources (HR) discipline remain the same, significant changes in organizations and definitions have been incorporated into the new FM to reflect today’s, and our anticipated future, environment. The revised FM also consolidates FM Interim (FMI) 1–0.01, S–1 Operations, and FMI 1–0.02, Theater-Level Human Resources Support, to create a single-source doctrinal publication for HR support.
HR support endures as the backbone of the Army. If the Soldier is the centerpiece of the force and its capabilities, then support to the Soldier constitutes the most basic, yet most essential, of Army activities. With this in mind, the overriding objective of HR support is to execute personnel decisions that maximize the operational effectiveness of the total force and sustain optimal readiness. This requires that HR support be integrated across the strategic, operational, and tactical levels; that it take into account the missions of supported and supporting units; and that it address the needs of all customers.
FM 1–0 outlines specific functions and tasks that the HR professional must be competent in and knowledgeable about to ensure reliable, responsive, and flexible support to commanders, Soldiers, Department of Defense (DOD) civilians, contractors authorized to accompany the force, and families. The FM contains six chapters and four appendices, which this article summarizes.
|Postal operations is one of the functions of the HR core competency of provide HR services. (Photo by PFC Daniel M. Rangel)
Major Changes in HR Doctrine
Chapter 1 highlights the major changes made in HR doctrine and provides an overview of HR support at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. It also identifies HR objectives, enduring principles, core competencies, key functions, and the command and control relationships with the sustainment community. Significant changes to HR doctrine include the following:
Separating the task of personnel accountability and strength reporting (PASR). This separation was necessary because PASR is actually two distinct tasks that are managed or executed by different elements above brigade level. Personnel accountability is an HR unit function executed by S–1s and HR units. Strength reporting is a command function and is executed by S–1s and G–1s.
Reducing the HR core competencies from 10 to 4 tasks. All previous HR tasks are now aligned under one of the following four core competencies: man the force, provide HR services, coordinate personnel support, and conduct HR planning and operations. The previous core competencies of casualty reporting, personnel information management, personnel readiness management, postal operations, band operations, and PASR have been changed to functions and aligned under one of the new core competencies. (See the chart at right.)
|FM 1–0 reduces the number of HR core competencies from 10 to these 4. Each competency is executed through several key functions.
Adding HR enduring principles. The six HR enduring principles are integration, anticipation, responsiveness, synchronization, timeliness, and accuracy. Each of these principles must be weighted and applied during the planning, execution, and assessment of HR support for current and future operations. While the principles are independent, they are also interrelated to build and sustain combat power. The principles of integration, anticipation, and responsiveness are also sustainment principles outlined in FM 4–0, Sustainment.
Eliminating the term R5 (replacement, reception, return to duty, rest and recuperation, and redeployment). R5 has been replaced with personnel accountability (PA). R5 was eliminated because it caused confusion in task execution and PA roles and responsibilities.
Redesigning the HR company. The company has been reorganized to consolidate the PA plans and operations team and the postal plans and operations team at the company level under the operations section. This consolidation streamlines the HR company and makes the operations section more efficient in performing full-spectrum HR operations.
Chapter 1 also describes how effective and efficient HR support relies on multifunctional HR leaders who must think strategically, work collaboratively, and be capable of producing and executing agile and clear HR policies. HR professionals must also use effective practices to pursue outcome-oriented actions and have the competency-based skills and knowledge required and expected of them.
Chapter 1 emphasizes the need for HR professionals to understand the importance of not only their efforts and unit missions but also the missions of supporting and supported units. Supported units include the division and corps G–1s/adjutants general, battalion and brigade S–1s, and HR operations branch within the sustainment brigade or expeditionary sustainment command. Supporting units are HR-specific units and include the HR sustainment center, military mail terminal, theater gateway personnel accountability teams, and HR companies with supporting postal and multifunctional HR platoons.
Core Competencies and Functions
HR support consists of the four core competencies, each of which includes subordinate key functions that directly support the competency. The core competencies and their supporting key functions are as follows:
Man the force. This competency includes all functions and tasks that affect the personnel aspect of building the combat power of an organization. Key functions are personnel readiness management, personnel accountability, strength reporting, retention operations, and personnel information management.
Provide HR services. HR services covers functions conducted by HR professionals that specifically affect Soldiers and organizations. These functions include essential personnel services, postal operations, and casualty operations.
Coordinate personnel support. Personnel support encompasses those functions and activities that contribute to unit readiness by promoting fitness, building morale and cohesion, enhancing quality of life, and providing recreational, social, and other support services to Soldiers, DOD civilians, and other personnel who deploy with the force. Personnel support encompasses the functions of morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) operations, command interest programs, and band operations.
Conduct HR planning and operations. HR planning and operations are the means by which HR leaders envision a desired HR end state that supports the operational commander’s mission requirements. Planning communicates to subordinate HR providers and unit leaders the commander’s intent, expected requirements, and desired outcomes in the form of an operation plan or order. Planning also provides a process for tracking current and near-term (future) execution of the planned HR support to ensure effective support to the operational commander.
HR Organization and Employment
Chapter 2 discusses the mission, organization, and employment of HR organizations and HR staff elements located at the theater, corps, division, brigade, and battalion levels. FM 1–0 identifies and describes the roles and responsibilities of each HR organization and HR staff element. The FM includes changes resulting from the recent force design update, which consolidated the HR and casualty platoon into a multifunctional HR platoon. Detailed discussion is included on the platoon’s capability to form personnel accountability teams and casualty liaison teams.
The chapter also provides recommended performance indicators for the HR operations branch. These indicators will enable the branch to identify, track, and synchronize HR support into the overall sustainment plan.
|FM 1–0 makes significant changes in human resources (HR) doctrine to create a single-source doctrinal publication for HR support.
Man the Force
In chapter 3, the core competency of “man the force” is described as any action or function that impacts the strength or readiness of an organization. Manning combines anticipation, movement, and skillful positioning of personnel so that the commander has the personnel with the right skills, capabilities, and special needs required to accomplish the mission and to meet changing operational needs.
The key function of man the force is personnel readiness management as it directly relates to the other key functions of personnel accountability, strength reporting, and personnel information management. The FM summarizes the roles and responsibilities of each man-the-force function by command level, from theater to battalion, and by HR units.
Provide HR Services
Chapter 4 discusses the core competency of provide HR services, which includes those functions that directly affect a Solder’s status, assignment, qualifications, financial status, career progression, and quality of life and that allow Army leaders to effectively manage the force. Included are the key functions of essential personnel services, postal operations, and casualty operations.
Essential personnel services include promotions, awards and decorations, leaves and passes, evaluation reports, citizenship and naturalization, and other related functions that are initiated by Soldiers, unit commanders, unit leaders, G–1s and S–1s, or from the top of the system. Casualty operations and postal operations are discussed in detail and include roles and responsibilities by each level of command and by HR units.
Coordinate Personnel Support
The core competency of coordinate personnel support is covered in chapter 5. Personnel support activities include those functions and activities that improve individual fitness, increase morale and cohesion, foster a better quality of life, and furnish recreational, social, and other support services for Soldiers, DOD civilians, and other deploying personnel. All of these activities are conducted with the goal of increasing unit readiness. The roles and responsibilities of each command level and HR units for MWR, command interest programs, and band operations are identified.
HR Planning and Operations
Chapter 6 discusses the core competency of HR planning and operations. It emphasizes to HR providers the need to have a complete understanding of the full capabilities of HR organizations and discusses how to plan and employ HR doctrine in current and future operations. Each step in the military decision making process (MDMP) is clearly identified, along with specific HR actions that must be considered when developing an operation order or plan. The planning process also identifies the need for the composite risk management process to be aligned with each step of the MDMP.
FM 1–0 contains five appendices that provide planning and management tools for HR operations. These include HR rear detachment operations, HR theater-opening and redeployment operations, casualty estimation, civilian support, and a division of HR labor task matrix. Each appendix identifies roles and responsibilities for HR professionals in HR-specific units and supported organizations.
FM 1–0 promotes a common understanding of HR support fundamentals. The manual does not dictate procedures for any particular operational scenario, nor does it provide specific system procedures for HR enablers. It provides the doctrinal base for developing operation plans and standing operating procedures. Leaders and HR operators at all levels must apply these fundamentals using Army planning and decisionmaking processes. The FM is an authoritative guide that requires judgment in application.